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UNLABELLED A consensus meeting was convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) to provide recommendations for interpreting clinical importance of treatment outcomes in clinical trials of the efficacy and effectiveness of chronic pain treatments. A group of 40 participants from universities,(More)
UNLABELLED Under the auspices of the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT), 26 professionals from academia, governmental agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry participated in a 2-stage Delphi poll and a consensus meeting that identified core outcome domains and measures that should be considered in clinical(More)
The pathogenesis of central nervous system disease during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection revolves around productive viral infection of brain macrophages and microglia. Neuronal losses in the cortex and subcortical gray matter accompany macrophage infection. The question of how viral infection of brain macrophages ultimately leads to(More)
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are considered to be endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, and are potent activators of the large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel in vascular smooth muscle. Here, we investigate the signal transduction pathway involved in the activation of BK(Ca) channels by 11,12-EET and 11,12-EET stable analogs(More)
Women rarely suffer cardiovascular dysfunction before menopause, but by the age of 65 a woman becomes as vulnerable to cardiovascular mortality as a man. It has been proposed that estrogens protect against cardiovascular disease; however, the physiological basis of estrogen protection is unknown. In the present study the mechanism of estrogen-induced(More)
The increasing complexity of randomized clinical trials and the practice of obtaining a wide variety of measurements from study participants have made the consideration of multiple endpoints a critically important issue in the design, analysis, and interpretation of clinical trials. Failure to consider important outcomes can limit the validity and utility(More)
The epoxygenase metabolite, 11, 12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11, 12-EET), has renal vascular actions. 11, 12-EET analogs have been developed to determine the structure activity relationship for 11, 12-EET and as a tool to investigate signaling mechanisms responsible for afferent arteriolar dilation. We hypothesized that 11, 12-EET mediated afferent(More)
PURPOSE Elevated plasma homocysteine has been implicated in glaucoma, a vision disorder characterized by retinal ganglion cell death. The toxic potential of homocysteine to ganglion cells is known, but the mechanisms are not clear. A mechanism of homocysteine-induced death of cerebral neurons is via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor overstimulation,(More)
Normally, signaling mechanisms that activate large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cause pulmonary vasodilatation. BK(Ca)-channel modulation is important in the regulation of pulmonary arterial pressure, and inhibition (decrease in the opening probability) of the BK(Ca) channel has(More)
UNLABELLED Pain is a complex multidimensional experience that includes overall intensity/magnitude, unpleasantness/bothersomeness (affect), location, and quality. However, there is a paucity of research examining the importance of pain quality to patient functioning; most research focuses only on the intensity and affective components of pain. This study(More)