Richard E. Olmstead

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CONTEXT 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (2-F-A-85380, abbreviated as 2-FA) is a recently developed radioligand that allows for visualization of brain alpha 4 beta 2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with positron emission tomography (PET) scanning in humans. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of cigarette smoking on alpha 4 beta(More)
CONTEXT Preclinical studies demonstrate that nicotine administration leads to dopamine release in the ventral striatum. However, human studies reveal considerable interindividual variability in the extent of smoking-induced dopamine release. OBJECTIVE To determine whether common gene variants of the brain dopamine pathway explain this observed phenotypic(More)
BACKGROUND In cigarette smokers, the most commonly reported areas of brain activation during visual cigarette cue exposure are the prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and visual cortices. We sought to determine changes in brain activity in response to cigarette cues when smokers actively resist craving. METHODS Forty-two tobacco-dependent smokers underwent(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer-related fatigue afflicts up to 33% of breast cancer survivors, yet there are no empirically validated treatments for this symptom. METHODS The authors conducted a 2-group randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of an Iyengar yoga intervention for breast cancer survivors with persistent post-treatment(More)
OBJECTIVE Substantial evidence from animal models demonstrates that dopamine release in the ventral striatum underlies the reinforcing properties of nicotine. The authors used [(11)C]raclopride bolus-plus-continuous-infusion positron emission tomography (PET) to determine smoking-induced ventral striatum dopamine release in humans. METHOD Twenty(More)
BACKGROUND When nicotine-dependent human subjects abstain from cigarette smoking, they exhibit deficits in working memory. An understanding of the neural substrates of such impairments may help to understand how nicotine affects cognition. Our aim, therefore, was to identify abnormalities in the circuitry that mediates working memory in nicotine-dependent(More)
Some reports indicate that cigarette smoking can help smokers focus attention, even when they have not abstained from smoking for a substantial period of time (eg, >1 h). Understanding the mechanisms by which smoking affects attention may help in designing smoking cessation treatments. Thirteen nonsmokers and nine smokers participated in two tests of blood(More)
Nicotine inhaled in smoke is the most rapid form of delivery of the drug. With smoking, arterial boli and high venous blood nicotine concentrations are produced within seconds and minutes, respectively. The potency of nicotine as the primary reinforcement in tobacco addiction is attributed to this rapid rate of delivery. By design, nicotine treatments(More)
This study examined cigarette craving and blood nicotine levels in 11 male heavy smokers who were observed during 16 h of tobacco abstinence. Subjects rated their urge to smoke on a new brief 10-item questionnaire, Urge to Smoke (UTS), Schuh and Stitzer's four-item Visual Analog Scale (SSI), and a Strength of Urge to Smoke (SUTS) item. Testing occurred: 1)(More)
Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammation and related disorders including cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. Given sex differences in the prevalence of inflammatory disorders with stronger associations in females, this study was undertaken to test the effects of sleep loss on cellular mechanisms that contribute to(More)