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Although the sensitivity and specificity of the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) have been validated by investigators from Europe and the United States, several shortcomings of this schema remain. The Duke IE database contains records collected prospectively on >800 cases of definite and possible IE since 1984. Databases on(More)
The worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is estimated to be approaching 200 million people. Current therapy relies upon a combination of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin, a poorly tolerated regimen typically associated with less than 50% sustained virological response rate in those infected with genotype 1 virus. The(More)
The nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein is a target for drug development against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interestingly, the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir (BMS-790052) caused a decrease in serum HCV RNA levels by about two orders of magnitude within 6 h of administration. However, NS5A has no known enzymatic functions, making it difficult to understand(More)
UNLABELLED The NS5A replication complex inhibitor, BMS-790052, inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication with picomolar potency in preclinical assays. This potency translated in vivo to a substantial antiviral effect in a single-ascending dose study and a 14-day multiple-ascending dose (MAD) monotherapy study. However, HCV RNA remained detectable in(More)
In vitro studies have shown that the host cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G causes lethal hypermutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcripts unless its incorporation into virions is blocked by Vif. By examining stably archived sequences in resting CD4+ T cells, we show that hypermutation occurs in most if not all infected individuals.(More)
BACKGROUND Effective therapeutic drug monitoring for antiretrovirals requires a better understanding of intraindividual variability in pharmacokinetics. METHODS We determined concentrations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors for 10 patients with undetectable plasma HIV RNA levels who had been(More)
BACKGROUND Women of childbearing age represent a growing proportion of people living with HIV. Preventing pregnancy is important in HIV-infected women receiving efavirenz as part of their antiretroviral therapy. METHODS The effects of coadministration of efavirenz (600 mg once daily) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the active components (ethinyl estradiol(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production continues in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with undetectable (<50 copies/mL) virus loads. Our initial cross-sectional study showed that this viremia is composed of viruses that lack new resistance mutations to the HAART regimen. Here we describe a longitudinal, clonal genotypic(More)
CONTEXT Many patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy experience intermittent episodes of detectable viremia ("blips"), which may raise concerns about drug resistance, lead to costly repeat measurements of viral RNA, and sometimes trigger alterations in therapy. OBJECTIVE To test(More)
Antiretroviral therapy can reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viremia to below the detection limit of ultrasensitive clinical assays (50 copies of HIV-1 RNA/ml). However, latent HIV-1 persists in resting CD4+ T cells, and low residual levels of free virus are found in the plasma. Limited characterization of this residual viremia has been(More)