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First, we propose a theory of multimedia learning based on the assumptions that humans possess separate systems for processing pictorial and verbal material (dual-channel assumption), each channel is limited in the amount of material that can be processed at one time (limited-capacity assumption), and meaningful learning involves cognitive processing(More)
Students viewed a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1) or the operation of a car's braking system (Experiment 2). In each experiment, students received either concurrent narration describing the major steps (Group AN) or concurrent on-screen text involving the same words and presentation timing (Group AT).(More)
The author's thesis is that there is sufficient research evidence to make any reasonable person skeptical about the benefits of discovery learning--practiced under the guise of cognitive constructivism or social constructivism--as a preferred instructional method. The author reviews research on discovery of problem-solving rules culminating in the 1960s,(More)
Computer-based multimedia learning environments — consisting of pictures (such as animation) and words (such as narration) — offer a potentially powerful venue for improving student understanding. How can we use words and pictures to help people understand how scientific systems work, such as how a lightning storm develops, how the human respiratory system(More)
the relation between cognition and instruction is a two-way street, psychologists and educators communicate in ways that are mutually beneficial to both psychological theory and educational practice. There is an intertwined and reciprocal relation between cognitive theory and educational practice—a relation that benefits both fields. By intertwined, I mean(More)
What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students' learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive–affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design principles:(More)
The authors tested the recommendation that adding bells and whistles (in the form of background music and/or sounds) would improve the quality of a multimedia instructional message. In 2 studies, students received an animation and concurrent narration intended to explain the formation of lightning (Experiment 1) or the operation of hydraulic braking systems(More)
The authors examined the hypothesis that some people are verbal learners and some people are visual learners. They presented a battery of 14 cognitive measures related to the visualizer–verbalizer dimension to 95 college students and then conducted correlational and factor analyses. In a factor analysis, each measure loaded most heavily onto 1 of 4 factors:(More)
If you are designing a PowerPoint presentation, developing an online course or preparing to flip your classroom, you may need to reconsider how you will get students to engage with the material without the traditional face-to-face interaction. In the book Multimedia Learning (Cambridge Press, 2001), Richard E. Mayer discusses twelve principles that shape(More)