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Students viewed a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1) or the operation of a car's braking system (Experiment 2). In each experiment, students received either concurrent narration describing the major steps (Group AN) or concurrent on-screen text involving the same words and presentation timing (Group AT).(More)
The author's thesis is that there is sufficient research evidence to make any reasonable person skeptical about the benefits of discovery learning--practiced under the guise of cognitive constructivism or social constructivism--as a preferred instructional method. The author reviews research on discovery of problem-solving rules culminating in the 1960s,(More)
Recent research shows that instructors commonly use politeness strategies to achieve affective scaffolding in educational contexts. The importance of affective factors such as self-confidence and interest that contribute to learner motivation is well recognized. In this paper, we describe the results of a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to study the effect of(More)
During the last 100 years, a major accomplishment of psychology has been the development of a science of learning aimed at understanding how people learn. In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and education is the development of a science of instruction aimed at understanding how to present material in ways that(More)
Students rated 16 tutorial statements on negative politeness (i.e., how much the tutor ''allows me freedom to make my own decisions'') and positive politeness (i.e., how much the tutor was ''working with me''). Consistent with an adaptation of Brown and Levinson's [1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Use. Cambridge University Press, New York](More)
This paper presents a cognitive framework for describing behaviors involved in program composition, comprehension, debugging, modification, and the acquisition of new programming concepts, skills, and knowledge. An information processing model is presented which includes a long-term store of semantic and syntactic knowledge, and a working memory in which(More)
The authors tested the recommendation that adding bells and whistles (in the form of background music and/or sounds) would improve the quality of a multimedia instructional message. In 2 studies, students received an animation and concurrent narration intended to explain the formation of lightning (Experiment 1) or the operation of hydraulic braking systems(More)
Pedagogical agent research seeks to exploit Reeves and Nass's Media Equation theory, which holds that users respond to interactive media as if they were social actors. Investigations have tended to focus on the media used to realize the pedagogical agent, e.g., the use of animated talking heads and voices, and the results have been mixed. This paper focuses(More)
In 4 experiments, students received a lesson consisting of computer-based animation and narration or a lesson consisting of paper-based static diagrams and text. The lessons used the same words and graphics in the paper-based and computer-based versions to explain the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1), how a toilet tank works (Experiment 2), how(More)