Richard E. Major

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Seventy-two normal children aged between three and 12 years were assessed to establish their walking function. Speed of walking and heart rate were monitored continuously, both barefoot and in shoes, over eight consecutive lengths of a 25m walkway. Since heart rate is affected by speed, the physiological cost index (PCI)--which combines the two(More)
Urbanisation typically results in a reduction of hollow-bearing trees and an increase in the density of particularly species, potentially resulting in an increased level of competition as cavity-nesting species compete for a limited resource. To improve understanding of hollow usage between urban cavity-nesting species in Australia, particularly parrots, we(More)
The variation of ground reaction forces with time for a complete hgo gait cycle using crutches has been synthesized from video recordings and force platform data. This has led to an understanding of the dynamics of hgo ambulation. The results show that when a patient used the orthosis the crutches provide a subtle control mechanism taking maximum advantage(More)
An orthotic method of providing reciprocal walking for high thoracic levels of paralysis is detailed. The essential features of the hip guidance orthosis are described, as well as the basic muscle requirements for this form of walking (shoulder, arm and hand function plus Latissimus Dorsi). The walking sequence is described at each stage under the three(More)
This study examines the evidence which supports the importance of maintaining relative abduction for effective reciprocal walking in high level paraplegic patients. In comparisons of orthoses, where this can only be achieved mechanically, those with higher lateral rigidity consistently showed greater levels of walking efficiency. The influence on hybrid(More)
The effect of four to six months use of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) and balance training was determined for six children with cerebral palsy. The six consecutively referred patients had spastic diplegia or hemiplegia, with hyperextension of the knee, and had accurate voluntary control of the trunk and hips. Fixed AFOs were adjusted to control the position of(More)
There are many reasons why a rigid ankle foot orthosis (AFO) may be prescribed. In some cases it is desirable that the rigidity is sufficient to maintain a constant ankle position throughout the gait cycle. There is a need to determine a design of cosmetic, lightweight AFO that provides the necessary stiffness whilst being acceptable to the patient,(More)
Using a Force Plate the gait cycle for one leg swing-through gait of ten normal subjects on Canadian crutches was monitored, and a composite diagram of forces on the lower limb and both crutches was produced. In addition the relationship of the stance and swing phase for both the lower limb and crutches was studied and the percentage of these phases and(More)
Force plate studies with nine adult traumatic complete paraplegics with lesion at thoracic level have shown that, unlike children walking in the Oswestry Hip Guidance Orthosis (Para Walker) system, they have to apply extra stabilizing forces through the crutches for safe walking. These forces are described and are attributed to an increased crutch force(More)
In some Australian and South American cities, nectarivorous birds have become a conspicuous component of the avifaunal community. One mechanism that has been proposed to explain their success is an increased availability of nectar that is provided by suburban gardens and other ornamental plantings. To determine whether the amount of nectar within the(More)