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Seventy-two normal children aged between three and 12 years were assessed to establish their walking function. Speed of walking and heart rate were monitored continuously, both barefoot and in shoes, over eight consecutive lengths of a 25m walkway. Since heart rate is affected by speed, the physiological cost index (PCI)--which combines the two(More)
This study examines the evidence which supports the importance of maintaining relative abduction for effective reciprocal walking in high level paraplegic patients. In comparisons of orthoses, where this can only be achieved mechanically, those with higher lateral rigidity consistently showed greater levels of walking efficiency. The influence on hybrid(More)
The provision of walking for paraplegic patients has therapeutic benefits but must be at a low energy cost. Although claims have been made regarding the need for high lateral stiffness in any orthosis targeted at this group, much of the supporting evidence was confusing. This paper presents the theoretical reasoning behind this claim and reviews recent(More)
Urbanisation typically results in a reduction of hollow-bearing trees and an increase in the density of particularly species, potentially resulting in an increased level of competition as cavity-nesting species compete for a limited resource. To improve understanding of hollow usage between urban cavity-nesting species in Australia, particularly parrots, we(More)
The variation of ground reaction forces with time for a complete hgo gait cycle using crutches has been synthesized from video recordings and force platform data. This has led to an understanding of the dynamics of hgo ambulation. The results show that when a patient used the orthosis the crutches provide a subtle control mechanism taking maximum advantage(More)
This paper reviews the currently available instrumentation used for gait studies and discusses the clinical suitability of the various methods of recording gait parameters. Most of the presently available motion analysis systems appear to be more suited to research than to the routine clinical situation. However the video vector visualization technique(More)
The prescription of treatment systems which include orthoses to enable patients with high level thoracic spinal lesions to walk reciprocally is now widely practised. It remains a clinical option for which the efficacy is frequently called into question. A broad range of experience has now been accumulated with orthoses of this type, and this is reflected in(More)
The effect of four to six months use of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) and balance training was determined for six children with cerebral palsy. The six consecutively referred patients had spastic diplegia or hemiplegia, with hyperextension of the knee, and had accurate voluntary control of the trunk and hips. Fixed AFOs were adjusted to control the position of(More)
Walking for paraplegics with complete mid-thoracic lesions is now becoming a clinically viable reality. However, much of the literature in this field overstates the achievements and masks the difficulties that patients may encounter. This paper highlights Independence, Energy Cost, Cosmesis, Reliability and Cost as the five areas of prime interest involved(More)