Richard E Mains

Learn More
The morphogenesis of dendritic spines, the major sites of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, is important in synaptic development and plasticity. We have identified an ephrinB-EphB receptor trans-synaptic signaling pathway which regulates the morphogenesis and maturation of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. Activation of the EphB receptor(More)
Spine function requires precise control of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7, a GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1, interacts with PDZ proteins such as PSD-95, colocalizing with PSD-95 at synapses of cultured hippocampal neurons. PSD-95 and Kalirin-7 interact in vivo and in heterologous expression systems. In primary cortical neurons, transfected Kalirin-7 is(More)
Communication between membranes and the actin cytoskeleton is an important aspect of neuronal function. Regulators of actin cytoskeletal dynamics include the Rho-like small GTP-binding proteins and their exchange factors. Kalirin is a brain-specific protein, first identified through its interaction with peptidylglycine-alpha-amidating monooxygenase. In this(More)
Many bioactive peptides must be amidated at their carboxy terminus to exhibit full activity. Surprisingly, the amides are not generated by a transamidation reaction. Instead, the hormones are synthesized from glycine-extended intermediates that are transformed into active amidated hormones by oxidative cleavage of the glycine N-Cα bond. In higher organisms,(More)
The actin cytoskeleton, essential for neuronal development, is regulated in part by small GTP binding proteins of the Rho subfamily. Kalirin-9, with two Rho subfamily-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF) domains, localizes to neurites and growth cones of primary cortical neurons. Kalirin-9 overexpression in cultured cortical neurons induces longer(More)
Kalirin is a neuron-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rho subfamily GTP-binding proteins. The major Kalirin transcripts in adult rat brain were identified. Most include a Sec14p-like putative lipid-binding motif followed by nine spectrin-like repeats and a Dbl homology/pleckstrin homology (DH-PH) domain. Kalirin proteins with four different NH(2) termini(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that modulate gene expression by binding target mRNAs. The hundreds of miRNAs expressed in the brain are critical for synaptic development and plasticity. Drugs of abuse cause lasting changes in the limbic regions of the brain that process reward, and addiction is viewed as a form of aberrant neuroplasticity. Using(More)
Double-antibody immunoprecipitation procedures with antisera to endorphins and to corticotropin (ACTH) were used to study the biosynthesis of these peptides in a mouse pituitary tumor cell line. Cultures were incubated with a (3)H-labeled amino acid, and aliquots of culture medium were immunoprecipitated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel(More)
Peptide alpha-amidation is a widespread, often essential posttranslational modification shared by many bioactive peptides and accomplished by the products of a single gene encoding a multifunctional protein, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM). PAM has two catalytic domains that work sequentially to produce the final alpha-amidated product(More)