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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency--the most common known enzymopathy--is associated with neonatal jaundice and hemolytic anemia usually after exposure to certain infections, foods, or medications. Although G6PD-deficient alleles appear to confer a protective effect against malaria, the link with clinical protection from Plasmodium(More)
A century ago, W. G. MacCallum identified distinct male and female forms in malaria parasites of both birds and humans. Since then, scientists have been puzzled by the high female-to-male ratios of parasites in Plasmodium infections and by the mechanism of sex determination. The sex ratio of malaria parasites was shown to become progressively more male as(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes may vary considerably in their severity and clinical manifestations. There is good evidence that host genetic factors contribute to this variability. To date, most genetic studies aiming at the identification of these genes have used a case/control study design for severe malaria, exploring specific candidate genes.(More)
Malaria parasites produce male and female life cycle stages (gametocytes) that must fertilize to achieve successful colonization of the mosquito. Gametocyte sex ratios have been shown to be under strong selection pressure both as an adaptive response to a worsening blood environment for transmission and according to the number of co-infecting clones in the(More)
The regional malaria epidemics of the early 1900s provided the basis for much of our current understanding of malaria epidemiology. Colonel Gill, an eminent malariologist of that time, suggested that the explosive nature of the regional epidemics was due to a sudden increased infectiousness of the adult population. His pertinent observations underlying this(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical case treatment of malaria infections where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are sympatric has achieved effective reductions in P. falciparum prevalence and incidence rates, but has been less successful for P. vivax. The high transmissibility of P. vivax and its capacity to relapse have been suggested to make it a harder(More)
Dengue is a major international public health concern, and the number of outbreaks has escalated greatly. Human migration and international trade and travel are constantly introducing new vectors and pathogens into novel geographic areas. Of particular interest is the extent to which dengue virus (DENV) infections are subclinical or inapparent. Not only may(More)
A large-scale cross-sectional seroprevalence study of dengue (DEN) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) was conducted in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, as part of the initial baseline health impact assessment of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric dam construction project. Health surveys were performed between May 2007 and February 2008 with serum samples collected from(More)
The majority of studies concerning malaria host genetics have focused on individual genes that confer protection against rather than susceptibility to malaria. Establishing the relative impact of genetic versus non-genetic factors on malaria infection and disease is essential to focus effort on key determinant factors. This relative contribution has rarely(More)