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The faithful transmission of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis requires the establishment and subsequent release of cohesion between replicated chromosomes. Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated, in large part, by the cohesin complex, which consists of four highly conserved proteins: SMC1, SMC3, SCC1/REC8 and SCC3. Mitotic cohesin complexes contain(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate phototropism in plants grown in microgravity conditions without the complications of a 1-g environment. Experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS) were used to explore the mechanisms of both blue-light- and red-light-induced phototropism in plants. This project utilized the European Modular(More)
In plants, sensitive and selective mechanisms have evolved to perceive and respond to light and gravity. We investigated the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Landsberg) in a spaceflight experiment. These studies were performed with the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware system in the(More)
Acinetobacter baumannii causes severe infections in compromised patients, survives on abiotic surfaces in hospital environments and colonizes different medical devices. In this study the analysis of the processes involved in surface attachment and biofilm formation by the prototype strain 19606 was initiated. This strain attaches to and forms biofilm(More)
The major purpose of this spaceflight project was to investigate the starch-statolith hypothesis for gravity perception, and a secondary goal was to study plant growth and development under spaceflight conditions. This research was based on our ground studies of gravity perception in the wild type and three starch-deficient (one starchless and two reduced(More)
Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB), and the physiology of SRBs can impact many anaerobic environments including radionuclide waste sites, oil reservoirs and metal pipelines. In an attempt to understand D. vulgaris as a population that can adhere to surfaces, D. vulgaris cultures were grown in a defined(More)
Integrins are a large family of integral membrane proteins that function in signal transduction in animal systems. These proteins are conserved in vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi. Evidence from previous research suggests that integrin-like proteins may be present in plants as well, and that these proteins may function in signal transduction during(More)
talpid(2) is an avian autosomal recessive mutant with a myriad of congenital malformations, including polydactyly and facial clefting. Although phenotypically similar to talpid(3), talpid(2) has a distinct facial phenotype and an unknown cellular, molecular and genetic basis. We set out to determine the etiology of the craniofacial phenotype of this mutant.(More)
The "starch-statolith" hypothesis has been used by plant physiologists to explain the gravity perception mechanism in higher plants. In order to help resolve some of the controversy associated with ground-based research that has supported this theory, we performed a spaceflight experiment during the January 1997 mission of the Space Shuttle STS-81.(More)
While there is a great deal of knowledge regarding plant growth and development in microgravity aboard orbiting spacecraft, there is little information available about these parameters in reduced or fractional gravity conditions (less than the nominal 1g on Earth). Thus, in these experiments using the European Modular Cultivation System on the International(More)