Richard E. Clark

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Evidence for the superiority of guided instruction is explained in the context of our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, expert–novice differences, and cognitive load. Although unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are very popular and intuitively appealing, the point is made that these approaches ignore both the structures that(More)
Recent meta-analyses and other studies of media's influence on learning are reviewed, Consistent evidence is found for the generalization that there are no learning benefits to be gained from employing any specific medium to deliver instruction. Research showing performance or timesaving gains from one or another medium are shown to be vulnerable to(More)
Advances in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, particularly regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mandate regular updating of concepts and management. A European LeukemiaNet expert panel reviewed prior and new studies to update recommendations made in 2009. We recommend as initial treatment imatinib, nilotinib, or dasatinib. Response is assessed with(More)
BACKGROUND Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. METHODS In this phase 3, randomized, open-label, multicenter study,(More)
PURPOSE We studied BCR-ABL1 transcript levels in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) at 3, 6, and 12 months after starting imatinib to identify molecular milestones that would predict for overall survival (OS) and other outcomes more reliably than serial marrow cytogenetics. PATIENTS AND METHODS We analyzed 282 patients with(More)
This chapter presents an overview of the current state of cognitive task analysis (CTA) in research and practice. CTA uses a variety of interview and observation strategies to capture a description of the explicit and implicit knowledge that experts use to perform complex tasks. The captured knowledge is most often transferred to training or the development(More)
Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials Newly Diagnosed Patients compares nilotinib and imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). With a minimum follow-up of 3 years, major molecular response, molecular response of BCR-ABL≤ 0.01% expressed on the international scale (BCR-ABL(IS); MR(4))(More)
BACKGROUND The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database Committee is committed to risk stratification and assessment as integral elements in the practice of cardiac operations. The National Cardiac Surgery Database was created to analyze data from subscribing institutions across the country. We analyzed the database for valve replacement procedures(More)
Activating mutations of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are present in approximately one third of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with adverse prognosis. The important role played by FLT3 in the survival and proliferation of blasts, and its overexpression in most patients with AML, make FLT3 an attractive therapeutic target.(More)
Over the last decade, hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT) has been increasingly used in the treatment of severe progressive autoimmune diseases. We report a retrospective survey of 183 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, recorded in the database of the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (EBMT). Transplant data were available from 178(More)