Richard E. Broughton

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We used phylogenetic analysis of body-size ecomorphs in a crustacean species complex to gain insight into how spatial complexity of ecological processes generates and maintains biological diversity. Studies of geographically widespread species of Hyalella amphipods show that phenotypic evolution is tightly constrained in a manner consistent with adaptive(More)
The tree of life of fishes is in a state of flux because we still lack a comprehensive phylogeny that includes all major groups. The situation is most critical for a large clade of spiny-finned fishes, traditionally referred to as percomorphs, whose uncertain relationships have plagued ichthyologists for over a century. Most of what we know about the(More)
Over half of all vertebrates are "fishes", which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not(More)
The possibility that frames serve to capture lines within them so that they appear on a coplanar surface was investigated, using coherence in direction of rotary motion (Gillam, 1972) as a quantitative measure of the coplanarity of frame and internal lines. It was found that perceptual coherence between a pair of lines was greatly increased by surrounding(More)
Nucleotide transitions are frequently down-weighted relative to transversions in phylogenetic analysis. This is based on the assumption that transitions, by virtue of their greater evolutionary rate, exhibit relatively more homoplasy and are therefore less reliable phylogenetic characters. Relative amounts of homoplastic and consistent transition and(More)
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the major energy-producing pathway in aerobic organisms, includes protein subunits encoded by both mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear (nu) genomes. How these independent genomes have coevolved is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. Although mt genes evolve faster than most nu genes, maintenance of OXPHOS(More)
Length variation due to tandem repeats is now recognized as a common feature of animal mitochondrial DNA; however, the evolutionary dynamics of repeated sequences are not well understood. Using phylogenetic analysis, predictions of three models of repeat evolution were tested for arrays of 260-bp repeats in the cyprinid fish Cyprinella spiloptera. Variation(More)
Identifying areas at risk of invasion can be difficult when the distribution of a non-native species encompasses geographically disjunct regions. Understanding genealogical relationships among native and non-native populations can clarify the origins of fragmented distributions, which in turn can clarify how fast and far a non-native species may spread. We(More)
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the primary source of ATP in eukaryotes and serves as a mechanistic link between variation in genotypes and energetic phenotypes. While several physiological and anatomical factors may lead to increased aerobic capacity, variation in OXPHOS proteins may influence OXPHOS efficiency and facilitate adaptation in organisms(More)
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