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An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong(More)
Two alternative “strategies” will not coexist in a population unless on average they are equally successful. The most likely way for such an equilibrium to be maintained is through something equivalent to frequencydependent selection. Females of the digger wasp Sphex ichneumoneus (Sphecidae) nest in underground burrows. They usually dig and provision these(More)
During the 7th Complement Genetics Workshop, Mainz, Germany, May 1998, a complement component C4 typing exercise took place with the aim of applying present technologies to the definition of reference C4 alleles/phenotypes and the recognition of nonexpressed (Q0) C4 alleles within expressed haplotypes. Eleven samples were submitted from 3 laboratories and(More)