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Pathological disturbances of mood may follow a 'bipolar' course, in which normal moods alternate with both depression and mania, or a 'unipolar' course, in which only depression occurs. Both bipolar and unipolar disorders can be heritable illnesses associated with neurochemical, neuroendocrine and autonomic abnormalities. The neurobiological basis for these(More)
Studies of the broader autism phenotype, and of subtle changes in autism symptoms over time, have been compromised by a lack of established quantitative assessment tools. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale) is a new instrument that can be completed by parents and/or teachers in 15-20 minutes. We compared the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent research has indicated that autism is not a discrete disorder and that family members of autistic probands have an increased likelihood of exhibiting autistic symptoms with a wide range of severity, often below the threshold for a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. OBJECTIVE To examine the distribution and genetic structure of(More)
BACKGROUND Subgenual prefrontal cortex (SGPFC) volume reduction has been reported in middle age adults with major depression (MD) or bipolar affective disorder. In this study, the authors test the hypothesis that SGPFC reduction is present in adolescent onset MD, and examine differences in the magnitude of reduction in younger versus older women. METHODS(More)
An invariant feature of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) is a relative deficit in the capacity for reciprocal social behavior (RSB). The authors acquired teacher reports of RSB in 287 schoolchildren and parent reports of RSB in 158 child psychiatric patients using a new research instrument, the Social Reciprocity Scale. Total scores on this measure(More)
In order to study the properties of the D2-like dopamine receptors, D2, D3 and D4 clones were transfected into mouse Ltk- fibroblasts, CCL1.3, and a neuronal mesencephalic cell line, MN9D. Most of the derived antagonist and agonist inhibition constants were the same for a given receptor in either cell line as determined by saturation and competition binding(More)
AIMS To develop a panel of markers able to extract full haplotype information for candidate genes in alcoholism, other addictions and disorders of mood and anxiety. METHODS A total of 130 genes were haplotype tagged and genotyped in 7 case/control populations and 51 reference populations using Illumina GoldenGate SNP genotyping technology, determining(More)
OBJECTIVE Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable but clinically heterogeneous syndrome. The study examined the familiality and heritability of ADHD subtypes as defined by DSM-IV and by latent-class analysis in a population sample of adolescent female twins. METHOD To determine which elements of ADHD cluster together,(More)
BACKGROUND Autistic disorder (AD) is a disabling oligogenic condition characterized by severe social impairment. Subthreshold autistic social impairments are known to aggregate in the family members of autistic probands; therefore, we conducted this study to examine the intergenerational transmission of such traits in the general population. METHODS The(More)
The pathophysiology of dystonia is unclear, but several clues implicate striatal dopamine dysfunction. In contrast, the causal relationship between striatal dopamine deficiency and parkinsonism is well defined. We now suggest that parkinsonism or dystonia may occur following striatal dopamine deficiency. Baboons treated with intracarotid(More)