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We present the first results from studies of liquid water microjets by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Near the oxygen K-edge (∼530 eV) a fine-structure pattern very similar to that found for gaseous water monomers is observed when the surface-selective total ion yield (TIY) is measured, but a broadened and blue-shifted spectrum emerges when detecting(More)
X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful probe of local electronic structure in disordered media. By employing extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of liquid microjets, the intermolecular O–O distance has been observed to undergo a 5.9% expansion at the liquid water interface, in contrast to liquid methanol for which there is a 4.6%(More)
There is much current interest in the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires, because the cylindrical geometry and strong two-dimensional confinement of electrons, holes and photons make them particularly attractive as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices, including lasersand nonlinear optical frequency(More)
The nonlinear optical response of semiconductor nanowires has potential application for frequency conversion in nanoscale optical circuitry. Here, second-and third-harmonic generation (SHG, THG) are imaged on single zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). The absolute magnitudes of the two independent (2) elements of(More)
Ultraviolet lasing from single zinc oxide nanowires is demonstrated at room temperature. Near-field optical microscopy images quantify the localization and the divergence of the laser beam. The linewidths, wavelengths, and power dependence of the nanowire emission characterize the nanowire as an active optical cavity. These individual nanolasers could serve(More)
Third harmonic generation (THG) imaging using a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) is demonstrated for the first time. A femtosecond, tunable near-infrared laser was used to generate both nonresonant and resonantly enhanced third harmonic radiation in human red blood cells. We show that resonantly enhanced THG is a chemically specific bulk probe(More)
The emerging field of coherent nonlinear near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is reviewed. Second harmonic, third harmonic, and sum frequency generation (SHG, THG, and SFG) are explored as means of providing chemically and environmentally selective probes with nanometer spatial resolution provided by scanning probe microscopy. Chemical selectivity(More)
Dynamic etching methods for fabricating fibre optic tips are explored and modelled. By vertically translating the fibre during etching by an HF solution under an organic protective layer, a variety of tip shapes were created. The probe taper lengths, cone angles and geometrical probe shapes were measured in order to evaluate the dynamic meniscus etching(More)
Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful probe of surface electronic and geometric structure in metals, semiconductors, and thin films. Because these techniques generally require ultrahigh vacuum, corresponding studies of volatile liquid surfaces have hitherto been precluded. We describe the design and implementation of an x-ray experiment based on(More)
Above-band-gap optical excitation produces interdependent structural and electronic responses in a multiferroic BiFeO(3) thin film. Time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction shows that photoexcitation can induce a large out-of-plane strain, with magnitudes on the order of half of one percent following pulsed-laser excitation. The strain relaxes with the(More)