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Neuromotor prostheses (NMPs) aim to replace or restore lost motor functions in paralysed humans by routeing movement-related signals from the brain, around damaged parts of the nervous system, to external effectors. To translate preclinical results from intact animals to a clinically useful NMP, movement signals must persist in cortex after spinal cord(More)
The shapes of the photocurrent responses of rat rods, recorded with microelectrodes from the receptor layer of small pieces of isolated retinas, have been investigated as a function of temperature and of stimulus energy. Between 27 and 37 degrees C the responses to short flashes can be described formally as the output of a chain of at least four linear(More)
OBJECTIVE Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts potent trophic influence on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to confirm initial clinical benefits observed in a small, open-label trial using intraputamenal (Ipu) infusion of recombinant human GDNF (liatermin). METHODS Thirty-four PD(More)
Beta oscillations (12-30 Hz) in local field potentials are prevalent in the motor system, yet their functional role within the context of planning a movement is still debated. In this study, a human participant implanted with a multielectrode array in the hand area of primary motor cortex (MI) was instructed to plan a movement using either the second or(More)
The interstitial voltages, currents, and resistances of the receptor layer of the isolated rat retina have been investigated with arrays of micropipette electrodes inserted under direct visual observation by infrared microscopy. In darkness a steady current flows inward through the plasma membrane of the rod outer segments. It is balanced by equal outward(More)
The omega-conopeptide, ziconotide, is an N-type calcium-channel blocker that has been shown to produce antinociception in animals using formalin and hot-plate tests. Initial reports of intrathecal administration of ziconotide in cancer and AIDS patients whose pain was unrelieved with opioids demonstrated analgesic efficacy. Although adverse effects were(More)
As part of a safety and tolerability study, a 65-year-old man with Parkinson's disease (PD) received monthly intracerebroventricular injections of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). His parkinsonism continued to worsen following intracerebroventricular GDNF treatment. Side effects included nausea, loss of appetite, tingling, L'hermitte's sign,(More)
Cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat tumors in many parts of the body, does not reach brain tissue during systemic injection because of the blood-brain barrier and protein binding in the blood. To allow hydrophilic drugs, such as cisplatin, to reach brain neoplasms with minimal body toxicity, we tested chronic intracerebral microperfusion into(More)
Brain T1 mapping has important clinical applications in detecting brain disorders. Conventional T1 mapping techniques are usually based on inversion recovery spin echo (IRSE) imaging or its more time-efficient counterpart inversion recovery fast spin echo (IRFSE) imaging because they can deliver good image quality. Multiple inversion times are required to(More)