Richard D. Penn

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Neuromotor prostheses (NMPs) aim to replace or restore lost motor functions in paralysed humans by routeing movement-related signals from the brain, around damaged parts of the nervous system, to external effectors. To translate preclinical results from intact animals to a clinically useful NMP, movement signals must persist in cortex after spinal cord(More)
OBJECTIVE Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts potent trophic influence on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to confirm initial clinical benefits observed in a small, open-label trial using intraputamenal (Ipu) infusion of recombinant human GDNF (liatermin). METHODS Thirty-four PD(More)
Beta oscillations (12-30 Hz) in local field potentials are prevalent in the motor system, yet their functional role within the context of planning a movement is still debated. In this study, a human participant implanted with a multielectrode array in the hand area of primary motor cortex (MI) was instructed to plan a movement using either the second or(More)
The interstitial voltages, currents, and resistances of the receptor layer of the isolated rat retina have been investigated with arrays of micropipette electrodes inserted under direct visual observation by infrared microscopy. In darkness a steady current flows inward through the plasma membrane of the rod outer segments. It is balanced by equal outward(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the safety, tolerability, and biological activity of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) administered by an implanted intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheter and access port in advanced PD. BACKGROUND GDNF is a peptide that promotes survival of dopamine neurons. It improved 6-OHDA- or MPTP-induced behavioral deficits in(More)
Advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques enable the accurate measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the human brain. In addition, image reconstruction tools facilitate the collection of patient-specific brain geometry data such as the exact dimensions of the ventricular and subarachnoidal spaces (SAS) as well as the computer-aided(More)
Previous studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have shown that beta oscillations (15-30 Hz) of local field potentials (LFPs) in the arm/hand areas of primary motor cortex (MI) propagate as traveling waves across the cortex. These waves exhibited two stereotypical features across animals and tasks: (1) The waves propagated in two dominant modal directions(More)
We studied the effect of the intrathecal infusion of baclofen, an agonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid, on abnormal muscle tone and spasms associated with spinal spasticity, in a randomized double-blind crossover study. Twenty patients with spinal spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis or spinal-cord injury who had had no response to treatment with oral(More)
As part of a safety and tolerability study, a 65-year-old man with Parkinson's disease (PD) received monthly intracerebroventricular injections of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). His parkinsonism continued to worsen following intracerebroventricular GDNF treatment. Side effects included nausea, loss of appetite, tingling, L'hermitte's sign,(More)