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Visual working memory is often modeled as having a fixed number of slots. We test this model by assessing the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of participants in a visual-working-memory change-detection task. ROC plots yielded straight lines with a slope of 1.0, a tell-tale characteristic of all-or-none mnemonic representations. Formal model(More)
Although the measurement of working memory capacity is crucial to understanding working memory and its interaction with other cognitive faculties, there are inconsistencies in the literature on how to measure capacity. We address the measurement in the change detection paradigm, popularized by Luck and Vogel (Nature, 390, 279-281, 1997). Two measures for(More)
Stroop and Simon tasks are logically similar and are often used to investigate cognitive control and inhibition processes. We compare the distributional properties of Stroop and Simon effects with delta plots and find different although stable patterns. Stroop effects across a variety of conditions are smallest for fast responses and increase as responses(More)
In recent years, statisticians and psychologists have provided the critique that p-values do not capture the evidence afforded by data and are, consequently, ill suited for analysis in scientific endeavors. The issue is particular salient in the assessment of the recent evidence provided for ESP by Bem (2011) in the mainstream Journal of Personality and(More)
In many paradigms, the persuasiveness of subliminal priming relies on establishing that stimuli are undetectable. The standard significance test approach is ill-suited as null results may reflect either truly undetectable stimuli or a lack of power to resolve weakly detectable stimuli. We present a novel statistical model as an alternative. The model(More)
In fitting the process-dissociation model (L. L. Jacoby, 1991) to observed data, researchers aggregate outcomes across participant, items, or both. T. Curran and D. L. Hintzman (1995) demonstrated how biases from aggregation may lead to artifactual support for the model. The authors develop a hierarchical process-dissociation model that does not require(More)
We tested whether there is long-term learning in the absolute identification of line lengths. Line lengths are unidimensional stimuli, and there is a common belief that learning of these stimuli quickly reaches a low-level asymptote of about seven items and progresses no more. We show that this is not the case. Our participants served in a 1.5-h session(More)
Interval estimates - estimates of parameters that include an allowance for sampling uncertainty - have long been touted as a key component of statistical analyses. There are several kinds of interval estimates, but the most popular are confidence intervals (CIs): intervals that contain the true parameter value in some known proportion of repeated samples,(More)
Prominent roles for general attention resources are posited in many models of working memory, but the manner in which these can be allocated differs between models or is not sufficiently specified. We varied the payoffs for correct responses in two temporally-overlapping recognition tasks, a visual array comparison task and a tone sequence comparison task.(More)
Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007) proposed a simple test of latent strength variability in recognition memory. They asked participants to rate their confidence using either a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale and plotted distributions of the resulting ratings. They found 25% more variability in ratings for studied than for new items, which they(More)