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Songbirds learn and maintain their songs via auditory experience. Neurons in many telencephalic nuclei important to song production and development are song selective, firing more to forward auditory playback of the bird's own song (BOS) than to reverse BOS or conspecific songs. Elucidating circuits that generate these responses can localize where auditory(More)
Synaptic interactions between telencephalic neurons innervating descending motor or basal ganglia pathways are essential in the learning, planning, and execution of complex movements. Synaptic interactions within the songbird telencephalic nucleus HVC are implicated in motor and auditory activity associated with learned vocalizations. HVC contains(More)
The development and adult production of birdsong are subserved by specialized brain nuclei, including the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), and its afferents originating in the caudal nucleus of the ventral hyperstriatum (HVc) and the lateral portion of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (L-MAN). An in vitro brain slice(More)
Before vision, retinal ganglion cells produce spontaneous waves of action potentials. A crucial question is whether this spontaneous activity is transmitted to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons. Using a novel in vitro preparation, we report that LGN neurons receive periodic barrages of postsynaptic currents from the retina that drive them to fire(More)
Nucleus HVC of the avian song system is essential to song patterning and is a prime site for auditory-vocal integration important to vocal learning. These processes require precise, high-frequency action potential activity, which, in other systems, is often correlated with the expression of calcium-binding proteins. To characterize any such functional(More)
Androgens potently regulate the development of learned vocalizations of songbirds. We sought to determine whether one action of androgens is to functionally modulate the development of synaptic transmission in two brain nuclei, the lateral part of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (LMAN) and the robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA),(More)
Birdsong, like human speech, is learned via auditory experience during a developmentally restricted sensitive period. Within projection neurons of two avian forebrain nuclei, NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs (NMDA-EPSCs) become fast during song development, a transition posited to limit learning. To discover whether slow NMDA-EPSCs at these synapses are(More)
In male zebra finches, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (LMAN) is necessary for the development of learned song but is not required for the production of acoustically stereotyped (crystallized) adult song. One hypothesis is that the physiological properties of LMAN neurons change over development and thus limit the ability of(More)
Birdsong, like human speech, is a series of learned vocal gestures resulting from the coordination of vocal and respiratory brainstem networks under the control of the telencephalon. The song motor circuit includes premotor and motor cortical analogs, known as HVC (used as a proper name) and RA (the robust nucleus of the arcopallium), respectively. Previous(More)
Standard single-unit recording and stimulation techniques were used to assess the topographic organization, receptive field properties, and projections of cells (n = 297) in the ophthalmic-maxillary part of the trigeminal ganglion in 6 normal adult rats and 15 adults with unilateral infraorbital nerve section at birth (cells recorded ipsilateral to lesion:(More)