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In an attempt to better characterize the subjective experience of hunger, we assessed the locus and extent of sensations associated with varying degrees of hunger. In the first study, 83 subjects indicated by marking on a drawing of a human figure where they felt hungry under hypothetical conditions of slight to extreme hunger. Approximately 55% of subjects(More)
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reportedly promotes weight loss, in part, through suppression of hunger. However, this mechanism has never been evaluated in humans in a controlled study. Eighty-nine mildly overweight females were prescribed 5020-kJ diets for 12 weeks as part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Forty-two participants(More)
Dietary compensation for energy provided as ethanol is reportedly limited. Whether this is a function of the ethanol or other aspect of the medium in which it is ingested is not known. Eight male and eight female adults ingested 1.08 liters of beer (5.0% ethanol w/v, 1891kJ), light beer (2.9% ethanol w/v, 1197kJ), no-alcohol beer (0.1% ethanol w/v, 816kJ),(More)
Energy-yielding fluids generally have lower satiety value than solid foods. However, despite high water content, soups reportedly are satiating. The mechanisms contributing to this property have not been identified and were the focus of this study. A within-subject design, preload study was administered to 13 male and 18 female adults (23.7+/-0.9 years old)(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that energy-yielding beverages evoke weaker appetitive responses than more solid food items, but the properties responsible have not been characterized. The present study attempted to isolate an influence of viscosity. At weekly intervals, 84 adults ingested 325-ml (220 kcal) shakes that were matched on weight, volume,(More)
Dietary and body fat are essential for life. Fatty acids modulate fat detection, ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination. Though direct effects occur throughout the body, much of this regulation stems from signals originating in the oral cavity. The predominant orosensory cue for dietary fat is textural, but accumulating electrophysiological,(More)
Obesity, with its comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, is a major public health concern. To address this problem, it is imperative to identify treatment interventions that target a variety of short- and long-term mechanisms. Although any dietary or lifestyle change must be personalized, controlled energy intake in(More)
Appetite management may aid energy balance through moderation of the size (satiation) and/or frequency (satiety) of eating occasions. This double-blind, randomized, cross-over design study explored the effects of the addition of alginate and guar gum to a breakfast bar on appetite and food intake. Following baseline evaluations of health, appetite and diet,(More)
The concurrent increases of snacking and obesity suggest the possibility for some form of inter-meal oral stimulation with high satiety value to moderate rising obesity rates. This study explored the influence of sweetened chewing gum on appetitive ratings, meal patterning and food intake. Three test conditions were imposed after a fixed lunch preload: no(More)
The effects of food unit size (FU) and energy density (ED) on food consumption were explored in 20 adults using a within subjects 2 x 2 design study. The four food treatment combinations were provided in the laboratory in random order on four non-consecutive days. The foods differed in FU (small food unit (SFU) or customary food unit (CFU)) and energy(More)