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Hunger ratings have been used as proxy measures of food intake although their validity has not been established. To address this issue, 12 female and 12 male adults of normal weight recorded food intake and hunger ratings every waking hour for 7 consecutive days. Discrepancies were noted in the correlation between hunger ratings and computed energy intake(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that energy-yielding beverages evoke weaker appetitive responses than more solid food items, but the properties responsible have not been characterized. The present study attempted to isolate an influence of viscosity. At weekly intervals, 84 adults ingested 325-ml (220 kcal) shakes that were matched on weight, volume,(More)
In an attempt to better characterize the subjective experience of hunger, we assessed the locus and extent of sensations associated with varying degrees of hunger. In the first study, 83 subjects indicated by marking on a drawing of a human figure where they felt hungry under hypothetical conditions of slight to extreme hunger. Approximately 55% of subjects(More)
Multiple putative free fatty acid (FFA) transduction mechanisms have been identified in the oral cavity. They reportedly differ in their distribution on the tongue and each has a unique range of ligand specificities. This suggests that there should be regional differences in sensory responses to varying FFAs. This was assessed through spatial testing with(More)
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reportedly promotes weight loss, in part, through suppression of hunger. However, this mechanism has never been evaluated in humans in a controlled study. Eighty-nine mildly overweight females were prescribed 5020-kJ diets for 12 weeks as part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Forty-two participants(More)
Findings from studies examining interactions between fat taste and dietary fat intake or body weight are mixed. A convenience sample of 735 visitors to the Denver Museum of Nature & Science ≥8 years old rated the taste intensity of edible taste strips impregnated with varying concentrations (%v/v) of linoleic acid (LA) (blank = 0.0, low = 0.06, medium =(More)
Dietary compensation for energy provided as ethanol is reportedly limited. Whether this is a function of the ethanol or other aspect of the medium in which it is ingested is not known. Eight male and eight female adults ingested 1.08 liters of beer (5.0% ethanol w/v, 1891kJ), light beer (2.9% ethanol w/v, 1197kJ), no-alcohol beer (0.1% ethanol w/v, 816kJ),(More)
Energy-yielding fluids generally have lower satiety value than solid foods. However, despite high water content, soups reportedly are satiating. The mechanisms contributing to this property have not been identified and were the focus of this study. A within-subject design, preload study was administered to 13 male and 18 female adults (23.7+/-0.9 years old)(More)
There is a widely held view that hunger prompts feeding to ensure energy needs are met, while thirst cues drinking to address hydration requirements. However, recent changes in the nature of the food supply and eating patterns have raised questions about the functionality of these relationships with respect to maintaining energy balance. The increasing(More)
The existence and reliability of cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) were tested in 20 normal weight males. Each subject was challenged three times with the same food stimulus over a 5-day period. Four baseline blood samples were taken at 5-min intervals before food ingestion and then every 2 min for 16 min postingestion. Significant increases in plasma(More)