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Evasion of DNA damage-induced cell death, via mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor or overexpression of prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins, is a key step toward malignant transformation and therapeutic resistance. We report that depletion or acute inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is sufficient to restore gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis in p53(More)
Over the past few years, study of the rare inherited chromosome instability disorder, Fanconi Anemia (FA), has uncovered a novel DNA damage response pathway. Through the cooperation of multiple proteins, this pathway regulates a complicated cellular response to DNA cross-linking agents and other genotoxic stresses. In this article we review recent data(More)
We have evaluated the role played by BRCA1 in mediating the phenotypic response to a range of chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in cancer treatment. Here we provide evidence that BRCA1 functions as a differential mediator of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Specifically, we demonstrate that BRCA1 mediates sensitivity to apoptosis induced by(More)
The eleven Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins cooperate in a novel pathway required for the repair of DNA cross-links. Eight of the FA proteins (A, B, C, E, F, G, L, and M) form a core enzyme complex, required for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and the assembly of FANCD2 nuclear foci. Here, we show that, in response to DNA damage, Chk1 directly phosphorylates(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the relationship between BRCA1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and clinical outcome following platinum and platinum/taxane chemotherapy in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS BRCA1 IHC was performed on a cohort of 292 ovarian tumours from two UK oncology centres. BRCA1 protein expression levels(More)
Human cancers exhibit genomic instability and an increased mutation rate due to underlying defects in DNA repair. Cancer cells are often defective in one of six major DNA repair pathways, namely: mismatch repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, homologous recombination, nonhomologous endjoining and translesion synthesis. The specific DNA(More)
The number of agents that are potentially effective in the adjuvant treatment of locally advanced resectable colon cancer is increasing. Consequently, it is important to ascertain which subgroups of patients will benefit from a specific treatment. Despite more than two decades of research into the molecular genetics of colon cancer, there is a lack of(More)
PURPOSE Current prognostic factors are poor at identifying patients at risk of disease recurrence after surgery for stage II colon cancer. Here we describe a DNA microarray-based prognostic assay using clinically relevant formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS A gene signature was developed from a balanced set of 73 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation and genetic instability are enabling characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PCa). Inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is prevalent in early PCa. The relationship of PTEN deficiency to inflammatory signalling remains to be characterised. OBJECTIVE To determine how loss of PTEN(More)
Evidence is accumulating to suggest that some of the diverse functions associated with BRCA1 may relate to its ability to transcriptionally regulate key downstream target genes. Here, we identify S100A7 (psoriasin), S100A8, and S100A9, members of the S100A family of calcium-binding proteins, as novel BRCA1-repressed targets. We show that functional BRCA1 is(More)