Richard D. Irwin

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This study tested the hypothesis that gene expression profiling can reveal indicators of subtle injury to the liver induced by a low dose of a substance that does not cause overt toxicity as defined by conventional criteria of toxicology (e.g., abnormal clinical chemistry and histopathology). For the purpose of this study we defined this low dose as(More)
This article shows that Medical Innovation—the landmark study by Coleman, Katz, and Menzel—and several subsequent studies analyzing the diffusion of the drug tetracycline have confounded social contagion with marketing effects. The article describes the medical community’s understanding of tetracycline and how the drug was marketed. This situational(More)
Identification of carcinogenic activity is the primary goal of the 2-year bioassay. The expense of these studies limits the number of chemicals that can be studied and therefore chemicals need to be prioritized based on a variety of parameters. We have developed an ensemble of support vector machine classification models based on male F344 rat liver gene(More)
In a 2-yr carcinogenicity bioassay, 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg furan/kg body weight (BW) was administered to male and female Fischer (F344) rats and resulted in an 86-100% incidence of cholangiocarcinomas with occasional metastasis. In a separate but concurrent study, male F344 rats dosed with 30 mg furan/kg BW for 90 days developed marked cholangiofibrosis and(More)
Metabolism studies are crucial for data interpretation from rodent toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. Metabolism studies are usually conducted in 6 to 8 week old rodents. Long-term studies often continue beyond 100 weeks of age. The potential for age-related changes in transcript levels of genes encoding for enzymes associated with metabolism was(More)
1,2,3-Trichloropropane was evaluated in 2-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies by the National Toxicology Program. The selection of this chemical for study was based on the potential for human exposure, its positive in vitro genotoxicity, and the carcinogenicity of structurally related chemicals. During the 2-year study 1,2,3-trichloropropane was(More)
In a recently completed 2-yr bioassay, furan was found to induce cholangiocarcinomas at high incidence in rats. The disposition of single and multiple gavage doses of [2,5-14C]furan has been determined in male F344 rats to aid in interpretation of that study. In the 24 h after dosing about 80% of the furan-derived radioactivity was eliminated, primarily via(More)
This report details the standardized experimental design and the different data streams that were collected (histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology and gene expression from the target tissue (liver) and a bio-available tissue (blood)) after treatment with eight known hepatotoxicants (at multiple time points and doses with multiple biological(More)
Archival tissues from laboratory studies represent a unique opportunity to explore the relationship between genomic changes and agent-induced disease. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of qPCR for detecting genomic changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues by determining if a subset of 14 genes from a 90-gene signature derived(More)