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Banks and other organisations deal with fraudulent phishing websites by pressing hosting service providers to remove the sites from the Internet. Until they are removed, the fraudsters learn the passwords, personal identification numbers (PINs) and other personal details of the users who are fooled into visiting them. We analyse empirical data on phishing(More)
The so-called " Great Firewall of China " operates, in part, by inspecting TCP packets for keywords that are to be blocked. If the keyword is present, TCP reset packets (viz: with the RST flag set) are sent to both endpoints of the connection, which then close. However, because the original packets are passed through the firewall unscathed, if the endpoints(More)
Three main methods of content blocking are used on the In-ternet: blocking routes to particular IP addresses, blocking specific URLs in a proxy cache or firewall, and providing invalid data for DNS lookups. The mechanisms have different accuracy/cost trade-offs. This paper examines a hybrid, two-stage system that redirects traffic that might need to be(More)
This chapter documents what we believe to be the first systematic study of the costs of cybercrime. The initial workshop paper was prepared in response to a request from the UK Ministry of Defence following scepticism that previous studies had hyped the problem. For each of the main categories of cybercrime we set out what is and is not known of the direct(More)
A frequently proposed method of reducing unsolicited bulk email (" spam ") is for senders to pay for each email they send. Proof-of-work schemes avoid charging real money by requiring senders to demonstrate that they have expended processing time in solving a cryptographic puzzle. We attempt to determine how difficult that puzzle should be so as to be(More)
Ongoing developments in cardiac modelling have resulted, in particular, in the development of advanced and increasingly complex computational frameworks for simulating cardiac tissue electrophysiology. The goal of these simulations is often to represent the detailed physiology and pathologies of the heart using codes that exploit the computational potential(More)
Banks and other organisations deal with fraudulent phishing websites by pressing the hosting service providers to remove the sites from the Internet. Until they are removed, the fraudsters will learn the passwords, personal identification numbers (PINs) and other personal details of the users who are fooled into visiting them. We analyse empirical data on(More)
tendered a study related to the overall subject matter of " Barriers and Incentives for network and information security (NIS) in the Internal Market for e-Communication. " Views and opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of ENISA. Network and information security are of significant and growing economic importance. The direct(More)