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Emerging as well as the most frequently used optical microscopy techniques are reviewed and image contrast generation methods in a microscope are presented, focusing on the nonlinear contrasts such as harmonic generation and multiphoton excitation fluorescence. Nonlinear microscopy presents numerous advantages over linear microscopy techniques including(More)
We review the current state of multiphoton microscopy. In particular, the requirements and limitations associated with high-speed multiphoton imaging are considered. A description of the different scanning technologies such as line scan, multifoci approaches, multidepth microscopy, and novel detection techniques is given. The main nonlinear optical contrast(More)
The influence of semicrystalline order on the second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency in the anisotropic bands of Drosophila melanogaster sarcomeres from larval and adult muscle has been investigated. Differences in the semicrystalline order were obtained by using wild-type and mutant strains containing different amounts of headless myosin. The(More)
Collagen (type I) fibers are readily visualized with second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy though the molecular origin of the signal has not yet been elucidated. In this study, the molecular origin of SHG from type I collagen is investigated using the time-dependent coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock calculations of the hyperpolarizibilities of glycine,(More)
The use of carotenoids as biologically friendly labels for third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy is demonstrated. Carotenoid containing liposomes are used to label cell structures via liposome cell fusion. The THG microscopy labels, called harmonophores, were characterized by measuring the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ((3))) of carotenoids:(More)
Imaging hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained cancerous histological sections with multicontrast nonlinear excitation fluorescence, second- and third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy reveals cellular structures with extremely high image contrast. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy together with second hyperpolarizability measurements of the dyes shows(More)
Nonlinear optical microscopy was used to image the localization of astaxanthin accumulation in the green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. Polarization-in, polarization-out (PIPO) second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy was applied to study the crystalline organization of astaxanthin molecules in light-stressed H.(More)
The development and characterization of a diode-pumped ultrashort pulse Yb:KGd(WO(4))(2) laser oscillator is reported. The laser was pumped by a 25W fiber-coupled diode laser module operating at 980 nm wavelength. In the mode-locked regime, 296 fs duration pulses centered around 1031 nm were generated at a repetition rate of 61 MHz with a total average(More)
Drosophila melanogaster larva myocytes are imaged with second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy undergoing forced stretching and rhythmic contractions to determine the nature of the SHG signal. During stretching, double peaked SHG profiles of the anisotropic (A-) bands evolve into single peaks with a higher SHG intensity. The dip in the intensity profile(More)
Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with(More)