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BACKGROUND There is substantial evidence that antidepressant medications treat moderate to severe depression effectively, but there is less data on cognitive therapy's effects in this population. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy in moderate to severe depression of antidepressant medications with cognitive therapy in a placebo-controlled trial. DESIGN(More)
OBJECTIVE Treatment-resistant depression is a significant public health concern; drug switching or augmentation often produce limited results. The authors hypothesized that fluoxetine could be augmented with olanzapine to successfully treat resistant depression. METHOD An 8-week double-blind study was conducted with 28 patients who were diagnosed with(More)
In two experimental sessions, we assessed early- and late-onset acoustic startle eyeblink modulation and subjective ratings of emotional pictures by nondepressed participants and by unipolar depressed participants. Depressed participants were assessed before and after treatment with the antidepressant medication Bupropion SR. Both depressed and nondepressed(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the efficacy and overall tolerability of augmentation of standard antidepressants with atypical antipsychotic agents for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane database, and program syllabi from major psychiatric meetings held since 2000 as well as a number of online clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Antidepressant medication prevents the return of depressive symptoms, but only as long as treatment is continued. OBJECTIVES To determine whether cognitive therapy (CT) has an enduring effect and to compare this effect against the effect produced by continued antidepressant medication. DESIGN Patients who responded to CT in a randomized(More)
Anhedonia is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the precise nature of anhedonic symptoms is unknown. Whereas anhedonia has traditionally been viewed as a deficit in the experience of pleasure, more recent evidence suggests that reduced anticipation and motivation may also be a core feature of this symptom. Here, we provide data from a(More)
OBJECTIVE Two antidepressant medication combinations were compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor monotherapy to determine whether either combination produced a higher remission rate in first-step acute-phase (12 weeks) and long-term (7 months) treatment. METHOD The single-blind, prospective, randomized trial enrolled 665 outpatients at six(More)
CONTEXT High neuroticism is a personality risk factor that reflects much of the genetic vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD), and low extraversion may increase risk as well. Both have been linked to the serotonin system. OBJECTIVES To test whether patients with MDD taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) report greater changes(More)
OBJECTIVES Patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) often appear anxious and report inattention. Patients with POTS were formally assessed for psychiatric disorders and inattention and compared with patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and control subjects. METHODS Patients with POTS (n = 21), ADHD (n = 18) and normal(More)
CONTEXT Antidepressant medications represent the best established treatment for major depressive disorder, but there is little evidence that they have a specific pharmacological effect relative to pill placebo for patients with less severe depression. OBJECTIVE To estimate the relative benefit of medication vs placebo across a wide range of initial(More)