Richard Castro

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Metformin is among the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) plays a role in the hepatic uptake of metformin, but its role in the therapeutic effects of the drug, which involve activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Recent studies have shown that human OCT1 is highly(More)
Methotrexate (MTX) is used in patients with malignant and autoimmune diseases. This drug is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine, and its net excretion occurs via active secretory and reabsorptive processes. We characterized the interaction of MTX with human organic-anion transporting polypeptide transporter (OATP) 1A2, which is expressed in tissues(More)
The goal of this study was to determine the effects of genetic variation in the organic cation transporter 1, OCT1, on the pharmacokinetics of the antidiabetic drug, metformin. Twenty healthy volunteers with known OCT1 genotype agreed to participate in the study. Each subject received two oral doses of metformin followed by collection of blood and urine(More)
In the United States, asthma prevalence and mortality are the highest among Puerto Ricans and the lowest among Mexicans. Case-control association studies are a powerful strategy for identifying genes of modest effect in complex diseases. However, studies of complex disorders in admixed populations such as Latinos may be confounded by population(More)
Multidrug and toxin extrusion 2 (MATE2-K (SLC47A2)), a polyspecific organic cation exporter, facilitates the renal elimination of the antidiabetes drug metformin. In this study, we characterized genetic variants of MATE2-K, determined their association with metformin response, and elucidated their impact by means of a comparative protein structure model.(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a genetic variant in the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), OCT2-808G/T, which results in an amino acid change, A270S, on the pharmacokinetics of the antidiabetic drug, metformin. METHODS The uptake of metformin was performed in stably transfected HEK-293 cells expressing the empty vector(More)
The human concentrative nucleoside transporter, CNT3 (SLC28A3), plays an important role in mediating the cellular entry of a broad array of physiological nucleosides and synthetic anticancer nucleoside analog drugs. As a first step toward understanding the genetic basis for interindividual differences in the disposition and response to antileukemic(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexicans have the highest and lowest asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality, respectively. Ethnic-specific differences in the response to drug treatment may contribute to differences in disease outcomes. Genetic variants at the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) may modify asthma severity and(More)
Interindividual variation in response to metformin, first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes, is substantial. Given that transporters are determinants of metformin pharmacokinetics, we examined the effects of promoter variants in both multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) (g.-66T → C, rs2252281) and MATE2 (g.-130G → A, rs12943590) on variation in(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES In the proximal tubule, basic drugs are transported from the renal cells to the tubule lumen through the concerted action of the H(+)/organic cation antiporters, multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) 1 and MATE2K. Dual inhibitors of the MATE transporters have been shown to have a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of(More)