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Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments
TLDR
Global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste are documented, showing that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing and that the average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing. Expand
Microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the methods used for identification and quantification.
TLDR
This review of 68 studies compares the methodologies used for the identification and quantification of microplastics from the marine environment and suggests standardized sampling procedures which allow the spatiotemporal comparison ofmicroplastic abundance across marine environments. Expand
Lost at Sea: Where Is All the Plastic?
TLDR
It is shown that microscopic plastic fragments and fibers are also widespread in the marine environment and may persist for centuries. Expand
The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review.
TLDR
This review focuses on marine invertebrates and their susceptibility to the physical impacts of microplastic uptake and an assessment of the relative susceptibility of different feeding guilds. Expand
Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: sources and sinks.
TLDR
It is shown that microplastic contaminates the shorelines at 18 sites worldwide representing six continents from the poles to the equator, with more material in densely populated areas, but no clear relationship between the abundance of miocroplastics and the mean size-distribution of natural particulates. Expand
Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L).
TLDR
The data indicate as plastic fragments into smaller particles, the potential for accumulation in the tissues of an organism increases and further work using a wider range of organisms, polymers, and periods of exposure will be required to establish the biological consequences of this debris. Expand
Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends
TLDR
Current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics are synthesized, and future priorities, challenges and opportunities are looked to. Expand
Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife
TLDR
Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride, and PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Expand
Microplastics in freshwater systems: a review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs.
TLDR
The issue of microplastics in freshwater systems is reviewed to summarise current understanding, identify knowledge gaps and suggest future research priorities. Expand
Spatial patterns of plastic debris along Estuarine shorelines.
TLDR
Test hypotheses about the influence of wind and depositional regime on spatial patterns of micro- and macro-plastic debris within the Tamar Estuary, UK show habitats that are downwind acting as potential sinks for the accumulation of debris. Expand
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