Richard C. van Kleef

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BACKGROUND The Dutch basic health-insurance scheme for curative care includes a risk equalization model (RE-model) to compensate competing health insurers for the predictable high costs of people in poor health. Since 2004, this RE-model includes the so-called Diagnoses-based Cost Groups (DCGs) as a risk adjuster. Until 2013, these DCGs have been mainly(More)
The Netherlands relies on risk equalization to compensate competing health insurers for predictable variation in individual medical expenses. Without accurate risk equalization insurers are confronted with incentives for risk selection. The goal of this study is to evaluate the improvement in predictive accuracy of the Dutch risk equalization model since(More)
The Dutch basic health insurance is based on the principles of regulated competition. This implies that insurers and providers compete on price and quality while the regulator sets certain rules to achieve public objectives such as solidarity. Two regulatory aspects of this scheme are that insurers are not allowed to risk rate their premiums and are(More)
BACKGROUND More and more competitive health insurance markets use risk equalization to compensate health plans for the predictable high costs of chronically ill enrollees. In the presence of premium rate restrictions, an important goal of risk equalization is to reduce incentives for selection, while maintaining incentives for efficiency. The literature(More)
The presence of voluntary deductibles in the Swiss and Dutch mandatory health insurance has important implications for the respective risk equalization systems. In a theoretical analysis, we discuss the consequences of equalizing three types of expenditures: the net claims that are reimbursed by the insurer, the out-of-pocket expenditures and the(More)
This paper examines a new risk adjuster for capitation payments to Dutch health plans, based on the prior use of durable medical equipment (DME). The essence is to classify users of DME in a previous year into clinically homogeneous classes and to apply the resulting classification as a risk adjuster for capitation payments in the subsequent year. We(More)
This study provides a taxonomy of measures-of-fit that have been used for evaluating risk-equalization models since 2000 and discusses important properties of these measures, including variations in analytic method. It is important to consider the properties of measures-of-fit and variations in analytic method, because they influence the outcomes of(More)
Experience in European health insurance exchanges indicates that even with the best risk-adjustment formulas, insurers have substantial incentives to engage in risk selection. The potentially most worrisome form of risk selection is skimping on the quality of care for underpriced high-cost patients--that is, patients for whom insurers are compensated at a(More)
Theoretically, a risk avers consumer takes a deductible if the premium rebate (far) exceeds his/her expected out-of-pocket expenditures. In the absence of risk equalization, insurers are able to offer high rebates because those who select into a deductible plan have below-average expenses. This paper shows that, for high deductibles, such rebates cannot be(More)
If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how(More)