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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
Traits used for identification of replacement beef heifers and feeding levels provided during postweaning development may have major financial implications due to effects on maintenance requirements and level of lifetime production. The current study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of feeding during the postweaning period on growth, G:F, and ultrasound(More)
A combination of Sanger and 454 sequences of small subunit rRNA loci were used to interrogate microbial diversity in the bovine rumen of 12 cows consuming a forage diet. Observed bacterial species richness, based on the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, was between 1,903 to 2,432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) when 5,520 reads were(More)
Cattle grazing winter range forages exhibit interannual variation in response to supplementation. This variation may be mediated by circulating concentrations and subsequent metabolism of glucose, which are influenced by forage quality and availability. A study conducted at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center during 2 dry years evaluated(More)
This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 days prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling-based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g dl-MET each day. Plasma was collected on days −2 and 0 (start of MET(More)
Energetic efficiency was evaluated in composite bred heifers born from dams receiving 1·8 or 1·2 kg/d winter supplementation for approximately 80 d before parturition. Heifers were then developed post-weaning and randomly assigned to heifer development treatments of either control (100 %; ad libitum; n 8/year) or restricted (80 %; fed 80 % of(More)
Assessment of beef cow energy balance and efficiency in grazing-extensive rangelands has occurred on a nominal basis over short time intervals and has not accounted for the complexity of metabolic and digestive responses; behavioral adaptations to climatic, terrain, and vegetation variables; and documentation of the effects of nutrient form and supply to(More)
Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important(More)
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