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Previous research has indicated that young infants can discriminate speech sounds across phonetic boundaries regardless of specific relevant experience, and that there is a modification in this ability during ontogeny such that adults often have difficulty discriminating phonetic contrasts which are not used contrastively in their native language. This(More)
In this article, we provide a critical review of the literature on speech perception and phonological processing in infancy, and in populations with different experiential histories as a window to understanding how the notion of critical periods might apply to the acquisition of one part of language: the sound system. We begin by suggesting the use of the(More)
To comprehend and produce language, we must be able to recognize the sound patterns of our language and the rules for how these sounds "map on" to meaning. Human infants are born with a remarkable array of perceptual sensitivities that allow them to detect the basic properties that are common to the world's languages. During the first year of life, these(More)
Previous research has suggested that infants discriminate many speech sounds according to phonemic category regardless of language exposure, while adults of one language group may have difficulty discriminating nonnative linguistic contrasts. Our study attempted to address directly questions about infant perceptual ability and the possibility of its decline(More)
Rats (Rattus norvegicus) deprived of the opportunity to interact with particulate matter until they were young adults engaged in defensive burying after they were shocked by a wire-wrapped dowel in a test chamber that held bedding material. Interacting with a particulate substrate during development is not necessary for the expression of defensive burying(More)