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Results of animal experiments using sinusoidal changes in inspired halothane concentration showed that the ratio of variation in end-expired concentration to the variation in inspired concentration reached a plateau in the Bode diagram. With the help of an uptake and distribution model, the interpretation of the results showed that the level of the plateau(More)
Extreme whole-body hyperthermia was achieved without lasting side effects in canines by elevating body core temperature to 42 degrees C, using a warm water bath. Cold water irrigation of the nasal alar fold permitted an additional core temperature elevation of 0.5-1.0 degrees C above brain temperature for periods up to 1.5 h. The brain-core temperature(More)
A quantitative phenomenological model to describe the relationships between biomass growth rate, oxygen consumption, and heat production in developing embryos has been developed and tested using a wide range of experimental data. The model employs generalized material and energy balances, principles of enzyme kinetics, and an overall metabolic model scheme(More)
When one is exposed to microgravity, fluid which is normally pooled in the lower extremities is redistributed headward and weight bearing bones begin to demineralize due to reduced mechanical stresses. The kidney, which is the primary regulator of body fluid volume and composition, responds to the fluid shift and bone demineralization by increasing the(More)
An analysis of thermal effects on the facilitative transport of oxygen in skeletal muscle fibers is presented. Steady-state mass and energy transport balances are written and solved analytically or numerically using a finite-difference procedure. It is shown that no significant spatial thermal gradients exist due to internal reactions or bulk conduction(More)
The eggs of the Megapodiidae are incubated while buried in a substrate with which they exchange heat and water. The eggs may be buried in sand or in a mound composed in part or totally of organic material. We have analyzed the heat and water exchange of these buried eggs by constructing egg heat and mass balances. The equations are used to examine changes(More)
A model of the human body that integrates the variables involved in temperature regulation and blood gas transport within the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is presented here. It expands upon previous work to describe the competition between skin and muscles when both require increased blood flows during exercise and/or heat stress. First, a(More)
The insensible water loss from the skin of premature neonates in various environments can be estimated by modeling the skin as a composite membrane and applying Fick's law to each layer. Studies involving human skin development have made it possible to apply the proposed model to predict an infant's insensible water loss as a function of gestational age and(More)