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The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), located in the dorsomedial medulla, is the site of visceral sensory modulation of a variety of homeostatic reflexes. Given recent advancements in the understanding of active regulation of synaptic information flow by astrocytes, we sought to determine whether afferent sensory inputs to NST neurons also activates NST(More)
Excitotoxic cell death due to glutamate release is important in the secondary injury following CNS trauma or ischemia. Proinflammatory cytokines also play a role. Both glutamate and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF(alpha)) are released immediately after spinal cord injury. Neurophysiological studies show that TNF(alpha) can potentiate the effects of(More)
Current treatments for acute spinal cord injury are based on animal models of human spinal cord injury (SCI). These models have shown that the initial traumatic injury to cord tissue is followed by a long period of secondary injury that includes a number of cellular and biochemical cascades. These secondary injury processes are potential targets for(More)
1. Previous anatomical studies indicate that the nucleus of the solitary tract, pars centralis (NSTc) contains the neurones which receive vagal afferent input from the oesophagus. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the NSTc circuits in the medulla that may be responsible for oesophageal control of gastric motility. 2. Moderate balloon(More)
Electrophysiological and physiological studies have suggested that the ventral medullary gigantocellular reticular nuclei (composed of the gigantocellular ventralis and pars alpha nuclei as well as the adjacent lateral paragigantocellular nucleus; abbreviated Gi-LPGi complex) provide descending control of pelvic floor organs (Mackel [1979] J. Physiol.(More)
Peptide YY (PYY) is released by endocrine cells in the ileum in response to the presence of fatty acids in the intestinal lumen. Circulating PYY suppresses vagally mediated digestive functions as a consequence of direct action on neurons in the dorsal medulla. Recent evidence from our laboratory suggests that this PYY-mediated inhibition of digestion occurs(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released from enteroendocrine cells after ingestion of nutrients and induces multiple effects along the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric relaxation and short-term satiety. We used whole cell patch-clamp and immunohistochemical techniques in rat brain stem slices to characterize the effects of CCK. In 45% of the neurons of(More)
Esophageal sensory afferent inputs terminate principally in the central subnucleus of the tractus solitarius (cNTS). Neurons of the cNTS comprise two major neurochemical subpopulations. One contains neurons that are nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactive (-IR) while the other comprises neurons that are tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR. We have shown(More)
The possible role of astrocytes in the regulation of feeding has been overlooked. It is well-established that the endothelial cells constituting the blood-brain barrier transport leptin from blood to brain and that hypothalamic neurons respond to leptin to induce anorexic signaling. However, few studies have addressed the role of astrocytes in either leptin(More)