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An adaptationist programme has dominated evolutionary thought in England and the United States during the past 40 years. It is based on faith in the power of natural selection as an optimizing agent. It proceeds by breaking an oragnism into unitary 'traits' and proposing an adaptive story for each considered separately. Trade-offs among competing selective(More)
Ne1 mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, che la diritta via era smarrita. Ahi quanto a dir qual era 2 cosa dura questa selvu selvaggia ed aspra e forte, che ne1 pensier rinnova la paura. DANTE PREFACE This book has grown, or better, exploded out of the Jesup Lectures that I gave at Columbia in 1969. Previous lecturers, in their(More)
Various measures have been proposed for characterizing the statistical association that arises between alleles at different loci. Hedrick has compared these measures with the standardized measure D' proposed by Lewontin on the grounds that this latter measure is independent of allele frequency. Although D' has the same range for all allelic frequencies, in(More)
Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no(More)
The estimation of the amount of evolutionary divergence that has taken place between two DNA coding sequences depends strongly on the degree of constraint on amino acid replacements. If amino acid replacements are relatively unconstrained, the individual nucleotide is the appropriate unit of analysis and the method of Tajima and Nei can be used. If amino(More)
Akaike's framework for thinking about model selection in terms of the goal of predictive accuracy and his criterion for model selection have important philosophical implications. Scientists often test models whose truth values they already know, and they often decline to reject models that they know full well are false. Instrumentalism helps explain this(More)
AS pointed out in the first paper of this series (HUBBY and LEWONTIN 1966) , no one knows at the present time the kinds and frequencies of variant alleles present in natural populations of any organism, with the exception of certain special classes of genes. For human populations we know a good deal about certain polymorphisms for blood cell antigens, serum(More)
In the comparison of DNA and protein sequences between species or between paralogues or among individuals within a species or population, there is often some indication that different regions of the sequence are divergent or polymorphic to different degrees, indicating differential constraint or diversifying selection operating in different regions of the(More)
In order to understand both the past and future directions of research in evolutionary biology we need to begin by understanding in what way these programs of research differ from the model of most scientific work. The study of evolutionary processes and, in particular, the genetics of the evolutionary process must confront special difficulties in both the(More)