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An adaptationist programme has dominated evolutionary thought in England and the United States during the past 40 years. It is based on faith in the power of natural selection as an optimizing agent. It proceeds by breaking an oragnism into unitary 'traits' and proposing an adaptive story for each considered separately. Trade-offs among competing selective(More)
Ne1 mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, che la diritta via era smarrita. Ahi quanto a dir qual era 2 cosa dura questa selvu selvaggia ed aspra e forte, che ne1 pensier rinnova la paura. DANTE PREFACE This book has grown, or better, exploded out of the Jesup Lectures that I gave at Columbia in 1969. Previous lecturers, in their(More)
Various measures have been proposed for characterizing the statistical association that arises between alleles at different loci. Hedrick has compared these measures with the standardized measure D' proposed by Lewontin on the grounds that this latter measure is independent of allele frequency. Although D' has the same range for all allelic frequencies, in(More)
A study of polymorphism and species divergence of the dpp gene of Drosophila has been made. Eighteen lines from a population of D. melanogaster were sequenced for 5200 bp of the Hin region of the gene, coding for the dpp polypeptide. A comparison was made with sequence from D. simulans. Ninety-six silent polymorphisms and three amino acid replacement(More)
Science serves its readers as a forum for the presentation and discussion of important issues related to the advancement of science, including the presentation of minority or conflicting points of view, rather than by publishing only material on which a consensus has been reached. Accordingly , all articleb published In Science-including editorials, news(More)
Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no(More)
The estimation of the amount of evolutionary divergence that has taken place between two DNA coding sequences depends strongly on the degree of constraint on amino acid replacements. If amino acid replacements are relatively unconstrained, the individual nucleotide is the appropriate unit of analysis and the method of Tajima and Nei can be used. If amino(More)
Fifty-eight isochromosomal lines sampled from two natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura in California and one from Bogota, Colombia, were examined using four-cutter restriction mapping. A 4.6-kb region of the xanthine dehydrogenase locus was probed and 66 of 135 restriction sites scored were polymorphic. This predicts that on average every 12th bp(More)
Regions of differing constraint, mutation rate or combination along a sequence of DNA or amino acids lead to a nonuniform distribution of polymorphism within species or fixed differences between species. The power of five tests to reject the null hypothesis of a uniform distribution is studied for four classes of alternate hypothesis. The tests explored are(More)
Akaike's framework for thinking about model selection in terms of the goal of predictive accuracy and his criterion for model selection have important philosophical implications. Scientists often test models whose truth values they already know, and they often decline to reject models that they know full well are false. Instrumentalism helps explain this(More)