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Activating B-RAF(V600E) (also known as BRAF) kinase mutations occur in ∼7% of human malignancies and ∼60% of melanomas. Early clinical experience with a novel class I RAF-selective inhibitor, PLX4032, demonstrated an unprecedented 80% anti-tumour response rate among patients with B-RAF(V600E)-positive melanomas, but acquired drug resistance frequently(More)
The development of acquired drug resistance hampers the long-term success of B-RAF inhibitor therapy for melanoma patients. Here we show (V600E)B-RAF copy-number gain as a mechanism of acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance in 4 out of 20 (20%) patients treated with B-RAF inhibitor. In cell lines, (V600E)B-RAF overexpression and knockdown conferred B-RAF(More)
Blocking oncogenic signaling induced by the BRAFV600E mutation is a promising approach for melanoma treatment. We tested the anti-tumor effects of a specific inhibitor of Raf protein kinases, PLX4032/RG7204, in melanoma cell lines. PLX4032 decreased signaling through the MAPK pathway only in cell lines with the BRAFV600E mutation. Seven out of 10 BRAFV600E(More)
Amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides play a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. They are known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation, resulting in apoptosis of neuronal cells. Here we show that human cytoplasmic gelsolin inhibits A beta peptide-induced cell death of neuronally differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12)(More)
Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor type that often develops drug resistance to targeted therapeutics. The production of colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) in tumors recruits myeloid cells such as M2-polarized macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), leading to an immune suppressive tumor milieu. We used the syngeneic mouse model of(More)
Post-training i.p. (2.0 or 5.0 mg/kg), i.c.v. (2.5 micrograms/rat), or intra-amygdala (1.6-40 ng/amygdala) administration of Ro 5-4864 causes memory facilitation of step-down inhibitory avoidance in rats. The effect is expressed as an increased latency to step down in a retention test carried out 24 h after training. Ro 5-4864 is a blocker of the(More)
BACKGROUND Therapies directed at augmenting regulatory T cell (Treg) activities in vivo as a systemic treatment for autoimmune disorders and transplantation may be associated with significant off-target effects, including a generalized immunosuppression that may compromise beneficial immune responses to infections and cancer cells. Adoptive cellular(More)
BACKGROUND The lack of effective treatments for gliomas makes them a significant health problem and highlights the need for the development of novel and innovative treatment approaches. Immunotherapy is an appealing strategy because of the potential ability for immune cells to traffic to and destroy infiltrating tumor cells. However, the absence of(More)
BACKGROUND Th17 cells are CD4+ cells that produce interleukin 17 (IL-17) and are potent inducers of tissue inflammation and autoimmunity. We studied the levels of this T cell subset in peripheral blood of patients treated with the anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab since its major dose limiting toxicities are inflammatory and autoimmune in nature. METHODS(More)
We found a significant correlation between lung cancer in smokers and the expression of a human gene, D40, predominantly expressed in testis and cancers. In an attempt to clone a novel human gene, we screened a cDNA library derived from a human B cell line and obtained a cDNA clone that we refer to as D40. A search for public databases for sequence(More)