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Using the method of images, we examine the three boundary conditions commonly applied to the surface of a semi-infinite turbid medium. We find that the image-charge configurations of the partial-current and extrapolated-boundary conditions have the same dipole and quadrupole moments and that the two corresponding solutions to the diffusion equation are(More)
We describe the development and utilization of a new imaging technology for plant biology, optical coherence microscopy (OCM), which allows true in vivo visualization of plants and plant cells. This novel technology allows the direct, in situ (e.g. plants in soil), three-dimensional visualization of cells and events in shoot tissues without causing damage.(More)
An optical coherence microscope (OCM) has been designed and constructed to acquire 3-dimensional images of highly scattering biological tissue. Volume-rendering software is used to enhance 3-D visualization of the data sets. Lateral resolution of the OCM is 5 mm (FWHM), and the depth resolution is 10 mm (FWHM) in tissue. The design trade-offs for a 3-D OCM(More)
Measurements were made of the intensity autocorrelation function, g(2)[tau], of light scattered from intact frog muscle fibers. During the tension plateau of an isometric tenanus, scattered field statistics were approximately Gaussian and intensity fluctuations were quasi-stationary. The half time, tau 1/2, for the decay of g(2)[tau] was typically 70 ms at(More)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality and has been used to image the larynx during surgical endoscopy. The design of an OCT sampling device capable of capturing images of the human larynx during a typical office based laryngoscopy examination is discussed. Both patient's and physician's movements were addressed. In(More)
Amplitude-modulated light launched into multiple-scattering media, e.g., tissue, results in the propagation of density waves of diffuse photons. Photon density wave characteristics in turn depend on modulation frequency (omega) and media optical properties. The damped spherical wave solutions to the homogeneous form of the diffusion equation suggest two(More)
A motion-sensitive en-face-scanning 3-D optical coherence microscope (OCM) has been designed and constructed to study critical events in the early development of plants and animals. We describe the OCM instrument and present time-lapse movies of frog gastrulation, an early developmental event in which three distinct tissue layers are established that later(More)
We investigate the sensitivity of measurements of muscle birefringence to cross-bridge dynamics in the resting, active, and rigor states. The theory of form birefringence is reviewed, and an optical model is constructed for the form birefringence of muscle. Values for the parameters in the model are selected or deduced from the literature. As an(More)
We describe a novel frequency-domain photon migration instrument employing direct diode laser modulation and avalanche photodiode detection, which is capable of noninvasively determinating the optical properties of biological tissues in near real time. An infinite medium diffusion model was used to extract absorption and transport scattering coefficients(More)
Corneal blindness is a significant problem treated primarily by corneal transplants. Donor tissue supply is low, creating a growing need for an alternative. A tissue-engineered cornea made from patient-derived cells and biopolymer scaffold materials would be widely accessible to all patients and would alleviate the need for donor sources. Previous work in(More)