Richard C. Garrad

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Many G protein-coupled receptors activate growth factor receptors, although the mechanisms controlling this transactivation are unclear. We have identified two proline-rich, SH3 binding sites (PXXP) in the carboxyl-terminal tail of the human P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor that directly associate with the tyrosine kinase Src in protein binding assays.(More)
Extracellular ATP and ADP mediate diverse physiological responses in mammalian cells, in part through the activation of G protein-coupled P2 purinoceptors. The cloning and expression of cDNAs encoding several P2 purinoceptor subtypes have enabled rapid advances in our understanding of the structural and functional properties of these receptors. The current(More)
Activation of P2Y(2) receptors by extracellular nucleotides has been shown to induce phenotypic differentiation of human promonocytic U937 cells that is associated with the inflammatory response. The P2Y(2) receptor agonist, UTP, induced the phosphorylation of the MAP kinases MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 in a sequential manner, since ERK1/2 phosphorylation was(More)
Molecular determinants of P2Y2 receptor desensitization and sequestration have been investigated. Wild-type P2Y2 receptors and a series of five C-terminal truncation mutants of the receptor were epitope-tagged and stably expressed in 1321N1 cells. These constructs were used to assess the importance of the intracellular C terminus on 1) UTP-stimulated(More)
Two subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors for nucleotides (P2U and P2Y purinoreceptors) contain several conserved positively charged amino acids in the third, sixth, and seventh putative transmembrane helices (TMHs). Since the fully ionized form of nucleotides has been shown to be an activating ligand for both P2U and P2Y purinoceptors (P2UR and P2YR), we(More)
The alpha-aminoadipate pathway for the biosynthesis of lysine is present only in fungi and euglena. Until now, this unique metabolic pathway has never been investigated in the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five of the eight enzymes (homocitrate synthase, homoisocitrate dehydrogenase,(More)
UTP activates P2Y2 receptors in both 1321N1 cell transfectants expressing the P2Y2 receptor and human HT-29 epithelial cells expressing endogenous P2Y2 receptors with an EC50 of 0.2- 1.0 μM. Pretreatment of these cells with UTP diminished the effectiveness of a second dose of UTP (the IC50 for UTP-induced receptor desensitization was 0.3 - 1.0 μM for both(More)
The LYS1 gene of Candida albicans has been localized to a 1.8-kb DNA fragment present on the plasmid YpBRG2. YpBRG2 has been shown to complement the saccharopine dehydrogenase mutant Stx4-4A of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transformants of S. cerevisiae Stx4-4A exhibited significant saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, and cells that had lost YpBRG2 after(More)
Purinergic signaling plays a unique role in the brain by integrating neuronal and glial cellular circuits. The metabotropic P1 adenosine receptors and P2Y nucleotide receptors and ionotropic P2X receptors control numerous physiological functions of neuronal and glial cells and have been implicated in a wide variety of neuropathologies. Emerging research(More)
The P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor (P2Y(2)R) contains the integrin-binding domain arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) in its first extracellular loop, raising the possibility that this G protein-coupled receptor interacts directly with an integrin. Binding of a peptide corresponding to the first extracellular loop of the P2Y(2)R to K562 erythroleukemia cells(More)