Richard C. E. Anderson

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Recent reports have described reduced immunological responsiveness and stimulatory capacity among monocytes/microglia that infiltrate malignant human gliomas. Herein, we demonstrate that culture of ex vivo human monocytes or primary human microglia with tumor cells isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) specimens renders them tolerogenic, capable of(More)
OBJECT Atlantoaxial and occipitocervical instability in children have traditionally been treated with posterior bone and wire fusion and external halo orthoses. Recently, successful outcomes have been achieved using rigid internal fixation, particularly C1-2 transarticular screws. The authors describe flow diagrams created to help clinicians determine which(More)
OBJECT Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has become routine in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Many surgeons prefer to use external ventricular drains (EVDs) over fiberoptic monitors to measure ICP because of the added benefit of cerebrospinal fluid drainage. The purpose of this study was to examine a consecutive series of(More)
OBJECT In rare cases, children with a Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) suffer from concomitant, irreducible, ventral brainstem compression that may result in cranial neuropathies or brainstem dysfunction. In these circumstances, a 360 degrees decompression supplemented by posterior stabilization and fusion is required. In this report, the authors present(More)
OBJECT Despite decades of surgical experience, the long-term consequences of occipitocervical (OC) and atlantoaxial (C1-2) fusions in children are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of these fusions on growth and alignment of the maturing cervical spine. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients(More)
OBJECTIVE Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified pediatric low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. These tumors have been shown to have significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival probability than classical(More)
OBJECT Cervical spine clearance after trauma in children 0-3 years of age is deceptively difficult. Young children may not be able to communicate effectively, and severe injuries may require intubation and sedation. Currently, no published guidelines are available to aid in decision-making in these complex situations. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) for the treatment of malignant gliomas is a technique that can deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly into the tumor and the surrounding interstitium through sustained, low-grade positive-pressure infusion. This allows for high local concentrations of drug within the tumor while minimizing systemic levels that often lead(More)
OBJECT Currently, no diagnostic or procedural standards exist for clearing the cervical spine in children after trauma. The establishment of protocols has been shown to reduce the time required to accomplish clearance and reduce the number of missed injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine if reeducation and initiation of a new protocol based on(More)
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently defined pediatric brain tumor; PMAs were previously classified within the pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) category. Nevertheless, PMA has different histological features and has been shown to behave more aggressively than PA. These findings indicate that PMA may be a unique entity that is distinct from PA, or it may be(More)