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OBJECTIVE Central neurocytomas are benign neoplasms with neuronal differentiation typically located in the lateral ventricles of young adults. Although the treatment of choice is complete surgical excision, patients may experience local recurrence. Adjuvant therapy for patients with residual or recurrent tumor has included reoperation, radiotherapy, or(More)
OBJECT Atlantoaxial and occipitocervical instability in children have traditionally been treated with posterior bone and wire fusion and external halo orthoses. Recently, successful outcomes have been achieved using rigid internal fixation, particularly C1-2 transarticular screws. The authors describe flow diagrams created to help clinicians determine which(More)
OBJECT Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has become routine in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Many surgeons prefer to use external ventricular drains (EVDs) over fiberoptic monitors to measure ICP because of the added benefit of cerebrospinal fluid drainage. The purpose of this study was to examine a consecutive series of(More)
OBJECT Despite decades of surgical experience, the long-term consequences of occipitocervical (OC) and atlantoaxial (C1-2) fusions in children are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of these fusions on growth and alignment of the maturing cervical spine. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients(More)
Recent reports have described reduced immunological responsiveness and stimulatory capacity among monocytes/microglia that infiltrate malignant human gliomas. Herein, we demonstrate that culture of ex vivo human monocytes or primary human microglia with tumor cells isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) specimens renders them tolerogenic, capable of(More)
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) for the treatment of malignant gliomas is a technique that can deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly into the tumor and the surrounding interstitium through sustained, low-grade positive-pressure infusion. This allows for high local concentrations of drug within the tumor while minimizing systemic levels that often lead(More)
OBJECT Currently, no diagnostic or procedural standards exist for clearing the cervical spine in children after trauma. The establishment of protocols has been shown to reduce the time required to accomplish clearance and reduce the number of missed injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine if reeducation and initiation of a new protocol based on(More)
OBJECT In rare cases, children with a Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) suffer from concomitant, irreducible, ventral brainstem compression that may result in cranial neuropathies or brainstem dysfunction. In these circumstances, a 360 degrees decompression supplemented by posterior stabilization and fusion is required. In this report, the authors present(More)
OBJECTIVE Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified pediatric low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. These tumors have been shown to have significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival probability than classical(More)
Lateral ventricular tumors are rare lesions of the central nervous system, and because most tumors are benign or low grade, permanent cure can be achieved with complete removal. After adequate preoperative imaging discloses a lateral ventricular mass, the neurosurgeon has several options to choose from when determining the ideal surgical approach to the(More)