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BACKGROUND Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB/SH) are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and(More)
PURPOSE This commentary is intended to provide a scientific perspective on pharmaceutical solid polymorphism in Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs). METHODS This report proposes recommendations for monitoring and controlling drug substance polymorphs and describes scientific considerations of pharmaceutical solid polymorphism in the determination of(More)
OBJECTIVE Sedation is frequently essential for successful MR imaging, and chloral hydrate is the most commonly used drug for this purpose in infants and children. Our experience with these patients suggested that this sedative is less effective in older children, even when administered in high doses. However, no prospective study comparing the efficacy of(More)
BACKGROUND Difficulties with ambulation in patients with myelomeningocele often lead to physical inactivity, osteoporosis, and subsequent development of pathologic fractures. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in patients with myelomeningocele. DESIGN AND METHODS A total of(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of thioridazine as an adjunct to chloral hydrate sedation when children undergoing MR imaging are difficult to sedate. SUBJECTS AND METHODS All 87 children in the study either could not be sedated with chloral hydrate alone or were mentally retarded. Thioridazine (2-4(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively determine anomalies of limbic tracts and to describe the relationship between these anomalies, seen on diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) and fiber tract (FT) reconstruction images, and learning and memory in children with myelomeningocele (MM) and Chiari II malformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The investigation was HIPAA(More)
Treatment of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293 cells) expressing the mouse glycine transporter 1 (GLYT1b) with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) decreased specific [3H]glycine uptake. This down-regulation resulted from a reduction of the maximal transport rate and was blocked by the PKC inhibitors(More)
Children with myelomeningocele experience difficulty with ambulation, which leads to immobilization and secondary loss of bone mineral density (BMD). In addition, non-ambulatory myelomeningocele patients have higher urinary calcium losses than their ambulatory counterparts. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is known to reduce urinary calcium loss and increase BMD(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between abnormal fetal spine findings on MRI and adverse outcomes in children with open neural tube defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a review of pregnancies complicated by myelomeningocele referred for fetal MRI from 2001 to 2007 and followed postnatally at a spina bifida(More)
OBJECTIVE This comparative cohort study examined language differences in young children (preschool to first grade) with myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (MM/SH). METHOD A well-validated, standardized language test was administered to 17 children with MM/SH (age range 4-6 years) and 16 age-matched, nonaffected children. RESULTS Standard scores(More)