Richard Bowen

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To evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to West Nile virus (WNV) by infectious mosquito bite. We monitored viremia titers, clinical outcome, WNV shedding (cloacal and oral), seroconversion, virus persistence in organs, and susceptibility to oral and contact transmission. Passeriform and charadriiform birds were more reservoir competent(More)
Professors: Ashiq Ali, Indranil R. Bardhan, Alain Bensoussan, Gary Bolton, Metín Çakanyildirim, Daniel A. Cohen, William M. Cready, Milind Dawande, Theodore E. Day, Gregory G. Dess, David L. Ford Jr., Umit G. Gurun, Varghese S. Jacob, Ganesh Janakiraman, Elena Katok, Dmitri Kuksov, Nanda Kumar, Stanley Liebowitz, Zhiang (John) Lin, Sumit K. Majumdar, Vijay(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), first recognized in North America in 1999, has been responsible for the largest arboviral epiornitic and epidemic of human encephalitis in recorded history. Despite the well-described epidemiological patterns of WNV in North America, the basis for the emergence of WNV-associated avian pathology, particularly in the American crow(More)
Crow deaths were observed after West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced into North America, and this phenomenon has subsequently been used to monitor the spread of the virus. To investigate potential differences in the crow virulence of different WNV strains, American Crows were inoculated with Old World strains of WNV from Kenya and Australia (Kunjin) and a(More)
A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female(More)
The observation of avian mortality associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection has become a hallmark epidemiologic feature in the recent emergence of this pathogen in Israel and North America. To determine if phenotypic differences exist among different WNV isolates, we exposed house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to low passage, lineage 1 WNV strains(More)
RNA viruses are notorious for their genetic plasticity and propensity to exploit new host-range opportunities, which can lead to the emergence of human disease epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, AIDS, dengue, and influenza. However, the mechanisms of host-range change involved in most of these viral emergences, particularly the genetic(More)
Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 10(3.0) to 10(4.0) PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of(More)
Introduction of West Nile (WN) virus into the United States in 1999 created major human and animal health concerns. Currently, no human or veterinary vaccine is available to prevent WN viral infection, and mosquito control is the only practical strategy to combat the spread of disease. Starting with a previously designed eukaryotic expression vector, we(More)
Long-term persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection within vertebrate reservoir hosts is a potential mechanism for overwintering of this (and other) arbovirus(es) at temperate latitudes. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus), an established amplifying host for WNV and other arboviruses, was used as a model to confirm chronicity of WNV infection in(More)