Richard Birnie

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The tumor-initiating capacity of many cancers is considered to reside in a small subpopulation of cells (cancer stem cells). We have previously shown that rare prostate epithelial cells with a CD133+/α2β1hi phenotype have the properties of prostate cancer stem cells. We have compared gene expression in these cells relative to their normal and differentiated(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate development and maintenance in the adult results from an interaction of stromal and glandular components. Androgens can drive this process by direct action on the stroma. We investigated whether there was a direct link between androgens and another key regulator of stromal cells, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ). METHODS Prostate stromal(More)
BACKGROUND This was an indirect comparison of the effectiveness of intravitreal aflibercept (IVT-AFL) 2 mg every 8 weeks after 5 initial monthly doses (or if different periods, after an initial monthly dosing period) (2q8) and other diabetic macular edema (DME) therapies at doses licensed outside the USA. METHODS A comprehensive search was undertaken to(More)
Ad[I/PPT-E1A] is an oncolytic adenovirus that specifically kills prostate cells via restricted replication by a prostate-specific regulatory element. Off-target replication of oncolytic adenoviruses would have serious clinical consequences. As a proposed ex vivo test, we describe the assessment of the specificity of Ad[I/PPT-E1A] viral cytotoxicity and(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, meters for continuous monitoring of interstitial fluid glucose have been introduced to help people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) to achieve better control of their disease. OBJECTIVE The objective of this project was to summarise the evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the MiniMed(®)(More)
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