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Insulin-secreting beta-cells, located within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, are excitable cells that produce regular bursts of action potentials when stimulated by glucose. This system has been the focus of mathematical investigation for two decades, spawning an array of mathematical models. Recently, a new class of models has been introduced called(More)
The electrical activity pattern of endocrine pituitary cells regulates their basal secretion level. Rat somatotrophs and lactotrophs exhibit spontaneous bursting and have high basal levels of hormone secretion, while gonadotrophs exhibit spontaneous spiking and have low basal hormone secretion. It has been proposed that the difference in electrical activity(More)
Facilitation is a transient stimulation-induced increase in synaptic response, a ubiquitous form of short-term synaptic plasticity that can regulate synaptic transmission on fast time scales. In their pioneering work, Katz and Miledi and Rahamimoff demonstrated the dependence of facilitation on presynaptic Ca(2+) influx and proposed that facilitation(More)
The nucleus HVC (proper name) within the avian analog of mammal premotor cortex produces stereotyped instructions through the motor pathway leading to precise, learned vocalization by songbirds. Electrophysiological characterization of component HVC neurons is an important requirement in building a model to understand HVC function. The HVC contains three(More)
Methods have been developed that further automate the building of macromolecular structures into electron-density maps. The software supports molecular-dynamics real-space refinement of an atomic model to local regions of a map within the context of a popular molecular-modeling program, O [Jones et al. (1991), Acta Cryst. A47, 110-119]. It is implemented as(More)
[Ca(2+)](i) and electrical activity were compared in isolated beta-cells and islets using standard techniques. In islets, raising glucose caused a decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) followed by a plateau and then fast (2-3 min(-1)), slow (0.2-0.8 min(-1)), or a mixture of fast and slow [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. In beta-cells, glucose transiently decreased and then(More)
Although single-channel Ca 2ϩ microdomains are capable of gating neurotransmitter release in some instances, it is likely that in many cases the microdomains from several open channels overlap to activate vesicle fusion. We describe a mathematical model in which transmitter release is gated by single or overlapping Ca 2ϩ microdomains produced by the opening(More)
The electrical activity of insulin-secreting pancreatic islets of Langerhans is characterized by bursts of action potentials. Most often this bursting is periodic, but in some cases it is modulated by an underlying slower rhythm. We suggest that the modulatory rhythm for this complex bursting pattern is due to oscillations in glycolysis, while the bursting(More)