Richard Ben Borgens

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In vitro, postganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) profoundly organize their anatomy according to cues provided by an extracellular voltage. Over 90% of PSNs retract neurites that are parallel/tangential to a gradient of approximately 400 mV/mm. Complete neurite retraction takes approximately 20-40 minutes. Subsequently, neurites grow out from the soma,(More)
Acrolein, a major lipid peroxidation product, has been associated with both CNS trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Because of its long half-life, acrolein is a potent endogenous toxin capable of killing healthy cells during the secondary injury process. Traditionally, attempts to intervene in the process of progressive cell death after the primary(More)
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the morphology of developing neurons and their processes. Additionally, AFM can physically interact with the cell under investigation in numerous ways. Here we use the AFM to both three-dimensionally image the neuron and to inflict a nano/micro-puncture to its membrane. Thus, the same instrument used as a(More)
The mechanical damage to neurons and their processes induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a progressive cascade of pathophysiological events beginning with the derangement of ionic equilibrium and collapse of membrane permeability. This leads to a cumulative deterioration of neurons, axons, and the tissue architecture of the cord. We have previously(More)
It is well known that traumatic injury in the central nervous system can be viewed as a primary injury and a secondary injury. Increases in oxidative stress lead to breakdown of membrane lipids (lipid peroxidation) during secondary injury. Acrolein, an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, together with other aldehydes, increases as a result of self-propagating(More)
The hydrophilic polymer PEG and its related derivatives, have served as therapeutic agents to reconstruct the phospholipid bilayers of damaged cell membranes by erasing defects in the plasmalemma. The special attributes of hydrophilic polymers when in contact with cell membranes have been used for several decades since these well-known properties have been(More)
BACKGROUND The highly reactive aldehyde acrolein is a very potent endogenous toxin with a long half-life. Acrolein is produced within cells after insult, and is a central player in slow and progressive "secondary injury" cascades. Indeed, acrolein-biomolecule complexes formed by cross-linking with proteins and DNA are associated with a number of(More)
We report extraordinary perpendicular orientations of neurons dependent on the presence of an external direct current (DC) voltage gradient. We chose chick dorsal root and postganglionic sympathetic neurons to evaluate. These were cultured in observation chambers in which the cells were separated from electrode products or substrate effects and maintained(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to serious neurological and functional deficits through a chain of pathophysiological events. At the molecular level, progressive damage is initially revealed by collapse of plasma membrane organization and integrity produced by breaches. Consequently, the loss of its role as a semi-permeable(More)
In this study, a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN)-based nerve growth factor (NGF) delivery system has been successfully embedded within an electroactive polypyrrol (Ppy). The spherical particles with approximately 100 nm diameter possess a large surface-to-volume ratio for the entrapment of NGF into the pores of MSNs while retaining their bioactivity.(More)