Richard Bates

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This paper examines and compares the usability problems associated with eye-based and head-based assistive technology pointing devices when used for direct manipulation on a standard graphical user interface. It discusses and examines the pros and cons of eye-based pointing in comparison to the established assistive technology technique of head-based(More)
This paper proposes a simple approach to an old problem, that of the 'Midas Touch'. This uses modes to enable different types of mouse behavior to be emulated with gaze and by using gestures to switch between these modes. A light weight gesture is also used to switch gaze control off when it is not needed, thereby removing a major cause of the problem. The(More)
This paper quantifies the benefits and usability problems associated with eye-based pointing direct interaction on a standard graphical user interface. It shows where and how, with the addition of a second supporting modality, the typically poor performance and subjective assessment of eye-based pointing devices can be improved to match the performance of(More)
Previous studies of the incidence, natural history, pathogenesis and diagnosis of cardiac rupture are presented, and 20 additional cases described. Progressive cardiorrhexis after myocardial infarction causes death in possibly more than 25,000 persons a year in the United States, and more frequent antemortem diagnosis is needed. Suggestions for future(More)
Of 42 patients with dissection of the aorta, 4 had important arch involvement. Results were good in 2 patients treated medically. In two other patients wrapping the arch with a Dacron graft successfully prevented fatal hemorrhage. This technique avoids the need for arch replacement in selected cases. From this experience and a review of others a flow sheet(More)
IKK-i and TBK1 were recently identified as IKK-related kinases that are activated by toll-like receptors TLR3 and TLR4. These kinases were identified as essential components of the virus-activated as well as LPS-MyD88 independent kinase complex that phosphorylates IRF3 and results in the production of cytokines involved in innate immunity. Both IKK-i and(More)
The Mesolithic-to-Neolithic transition marked the time when a hunter-gatherer economy gave way to agriculture, coinciding with rising sea levels. Bouldnor Cliff, is a submarine archaeological site off the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom that has a well-preserved Mesolithic paleosol dated to 8000 years before the present. We analyzed a core obtained from(More)
Investigations at Happisburgh, UK, have revealed the oldest known hominin footprint surface outside Africa at between ca. 1 million and 0.78 million years ago. The site has long been recognised for the preservation of sediments containing Early Pleistocene fauna and flora, but since 2005 has also yielded humanly made flint artefacts, extending the record of(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of fistulae in Crohn's disease (CD) patients is barely understood. We recently showed that more than two-thirds of CD fistulae are covered with flat, mesenchymal-like cells (transitional cells [TC]) forming a patchy basement membrane. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process of reprogramming epithelial cells,(More)