Richard Bandler

Learn More
Independent discoveries in several laboratories suggest that the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), the cell-dense region surrounding the midbrain aqueduct, contains a previously unsuspected degree of anatomical and functional organization. This organization takes the form of longitudinal columns of afferent inputs, output neurons and intrinsic(More)
Animals, including humans, react with distinct emotional coping strategies to different sets of environmental demands. These strategies include the capacity to affect appropriate responses to "escapable" or "inescapable" stressors. Active emotional coping strategies--fight or flight--are particularly adaptive if the stress is escapable. On the other hand,(More)
The origin and termination of prefrontal cortical projections to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) were defined with retrograde axonal tracers injected into the PAG and anterograde axonal tracers injected into the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The retrograde tracer experiments demonstrate projections to the PAG that arise primarily from the medial prefrontal areas(More)
All animals, including humans, react with distinct emotional coping strategies to different types of stress. Active coping strategies (e.g. confrontation, fight, escape) are evoked if the stressor is controllable or escapable. Passive coping strategies (e.g. quiescence, immobility, decreased responsiveness to the environment) are usually elicited if the(More)
We utilised retrograde and anterograde tracing procedures to study the origin and termination of prefrontal cortical (PFC) projections to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the rat. A previous study, in the primate, had demonstrated that distinct subgroups of PFC areas project to specific PAG columns. Retrograde tracing experiments revealed that projections(More)
1. The descending pathways that mediate the periaqueductal gray (PAG)-evoked coordination of respiratory, laryngeal, and orofacial activity for vocalization have yet to be delineated. Two hypotheses have been offered. One theory is that this activity is mediated by a diffuse descending projection to parvocellular reticular interneurons, adjacent to the(More)
Unilateral microinjections (0.20 microliter) of the excitatory amino acids (EAA), L-aspartate (ASP), D,L-homocysteate (DLH) or kainate (KA) were made into the midbrain of freely moving cats. Injections of DLH (20 nmol) or ASP (200 nmol) made within the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) consistently elicited a threat display characteristic of(More)
All pain is unpleasant, but different perceptual and emotional qualities are characteristic of pain originating in different structures. Pain of superficial (cutaneous) origin usually is sharp and restricted, whereas pain of deep origin (muscle/viscera) generally is dull and diffuse. Despite the differences it has been suggested previously that all pain is(More)
A large number of new descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord have been recognized recently. Nevertheless all the new pathways seem to belong to one of three motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). This survey gives an overview of the pathways belonging to the so-called emotional motor system or the third motor system as(More)
A previous study in the rat revealed that distinct orbital and medial prefrontal cortical (OMPFC) areas projected to specific columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region (PAG). This study used anterograde tracing techniques to define projections to the hypothalamus arising from the same OMPFC regions. In addition, injections of anterograde and(More)