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Zinc is essential to the structure and function of myriad proteins, including regulatory, structural and enzymatic. It is estimated that up to 1% of the human genome codes for zinc finger proteins. In the central nervous system, zinc has an additional role as a neurosecretory product or cofactor. In this role, zinc is highly concentrated in the synaptic(More)
Cerebrocortical neurons that store and release zinc synaptically are widely recognized as critical in maintenance of cortical excitability and in certain forms of brain injury and disease. Through the last 20 years, this synaptic release has been observed directly or indirectly and reported in more than a score of publications from over a dozen laboratories(More)
BACKGROUND Delivery and tracking of endomyocardial stem cells are limited by the inability to image transplanted cells noninvasively in the beating heart. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be labeled with a iron fluorophore particle (IFP) to provide MRI contrast in vivo to assess immediate and long-term localization. METHODS AND(More)
The energy transfer protein, green fluorescent protein, from the hydromedusan jellyfish Aequorea victoria has been crystallized in two morphologies suitable for x-ray diffraction analysis. Hexagonal plates have been obtained in the P6122 or P6522 space group with a = b = 77.5, c = 370 A, and no more than three molecules per asymmetric unit. Monoclinic(More)
PURPOSE Anatomic placement of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts at arthroscopic reconstruction can be challenging. Localising ACL attachments on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences pre-operatively could aid with planning for anatomic graft placement. Though ACL attachments can be identified on two-dimensional (2D) MRI, slice thickness(More)
PURPOSE To validate a new saturation recovery single-shot acquisition (SASHA) pulse sequence for T1 mapping and to compare SASHA T1 values in heart failure patients and healthy controls. THEORY The SASHA sequence consists of 10 electrocardiogram-triggered single-shot balanced steady-state free precession images in a breath-hold. The first image is(More)
PURPOSE To compare accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of four commonly used myocardial T1 mapping sequences: modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI), shortened MOLLI (ShMOLLI), saturation recovery single-shot acquisition (SASHA), and saturation pulse prepared heart rate independent inversion recovery (SAPPHIRE). MATERIALS AND METHODS This(More)
"Free Zn2+" (rapidly exchangeable Zn2+) is stored along with glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of specific specialized (gluzinergic) cerebrocortical neurons. This synaptically releasable Zn2+ has been recognized as a potent modulator of glutamatergic transmission and as a key toxin in excitotoxic neuronal injury. Surprisingly (despite abundant work on(More)
The membrane-impermeable chelator CaEDTA was introduced extracellularly among neurons in vivo and in vitro for the purpose of chelating extracellular Zn(2+). Unexpectedly, this treatment caused histochemically reactive Zn(2+) in intracellular compartments to drop rapidly. The same general result was seen with intravesicular Zn(2+), which fell after CaEDTA(More)
Velocity imaging with phase contrast (PC) MRI is a noninvasive tool for quantitative blood flow measurement in vivo. A shortcoming of conventional PC imaging is the reduction in temporal resolution as compared to the corresponding magnitude imaging. For the measurement of velocity in a single direction, the temporal resolution is halved because one must(More)