Richard B. Schlesinger

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In addition to developing nations relying almost exclusively upon biomass fuels, such as wood for cooking and home heating, North Americans, particularly in Canada and the northwestern and northeastern sections of the United States, have increasingly turned to woodburning as an alternate method for domestic heating because of increasing energy costs. As a(More)
A major public health goal is to determine linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health outcomes. This paper provides an integrative evaluation of the database examining effects of vehicular emissions, such as black carbon (BC), carbonaceous gasses, and ultrafine PM, on cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Less than a decade ago,(More)
In 1998 Congress mandated expanded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) health effects research on ambient air particulate matter (PM) and a National Research Council (NRC) committee to provide research oversight. The U.S. EPA currently supports intramural and extramural PM research, including five academically based PM centers. The PM centers in(More)
Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that infection, specifically pneumonia, contributes substantially to the increased morbidity and mortality among elderly individuals following exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). This laboratory has previously demonstrated that a single inhalation exposure of Streptococcus pneumoniae-infected rats to concentrated(More)
Respiratory-tract infection, specifically pneumonia, contributes substantially to the increased morbidity and mortality among elderly individuals exposed to airborne particulate matter of <10 microm diameter (PM(10)). These epidemiological findings suggest that PM(10) may act as an immunosuppressive factor that can undermine normal pulmonary antimicrobial(More)
Particulate matter (PM) pollution is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, the majority due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). While many potential pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, there is not yet a consensus as to which are most important in causing pollution-related morbidity/mortality. Nor is there consensus regarding(More)
The ability of the lungs to clear deposited material is essential for maintenance of lung homeostasis. Acid aerosols have been shown to alter the efficiency of this process. This paper assesses the role of acid aerosol exposure concentration (C), exposure time (T), and relative acidity in producing changes in clearance from both the tracheobronchial tree(More)
Sulfuric acid aerosols occur in the ambient particulate mode due to atmospheric conversion from sulfur dioxide (SO2). This paper describes the response of the rabbit tracheobronchial tree to daily exposures to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol, relating physiological and morphological parameters. Rabbits were exposed to filtered air (sham control) or to(More)
Clearance mechanisms are an integral part of pulmonary defense, serving to rid the lungs of inhaled particles that deposit upon airway surfaces. This is accomplished by mucociliary transport in conducting airways and to a large extent by alveolar macrophages in the respiratory region. This paper compares the effects of acute exposure to sulfuric acid(More)
The respiratory tract is endowed with an interlocking array of nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms which protect it from the effects of inhaled microbes and toxicants, and reduce the risk of absorption of materials into the bloodstream, with subsequent systemic translocation. Ambient acids may compromise these defenses, perhaps providing a link(More)