Learn More
The characteristics of sequential human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from 12 seroconverters among injection drug users selected for either rapid or slow disease progression were evaluated. All 6 patients who developed AIDS within 5 years were initially infected with syncytium-inducing (SI) variants or showed a transition from(More)
Human enteroviruses (HEV) have been linked to hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Pacific and Southeast Asia for decades. Many cases of HFMD have been attributed to coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, CA16), based on only partial viral genome determination. Viral phenotypes are also poorly defined. Herein, we have genetically and phenotypically(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements are used for initiation of antiretroviral treatments. Whether the viral-load association with prognosis is similar in women and men is unknown. METHODS We studied 812 specimens from 650 injection-drug users (IDUs) participating in a continuous observational study of patients based in a community clinic. HIV-1 load(More)
BACKGROUND Recombination between strains of HIV-1 only occurs in individuals with multiple infections, and the incidence of recombinant forms implies that multiple infection is common. Most direct studies indicate that multiple infection is rare. We determined the rate of multiple infection in a longitudinal study of 58 HIV-1 positive participants from The(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia complex is a common and devastating manifestation of the late phases of HIV infection. The pathogenesis of dementia complex is poorly understood and effective treatments have not been developed, in part because of the lack of an appropriate animal model. Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid(More)
Because both HIV-1 virions and HIV-infected cells are present in the semen and cervical mucus of infected individuals, HIV-1 prevention strategies must consider both cell-free and cell-associated virus. Antibodies that target HIV-1 virions have been shown to prevent vaginal transmission of cell-free virus in macaques, but since cell-associated transmission(More)
Evolution of HIV-1 env sequences was studied in 15 seroconverting injection drug users selected for differences in the extent of CD4 T cell decline. The rates of increase of either sequence diversity at a given visit or divergence from the first seropositive visit were both higher in progressors than in nonprogressors. Viral evolution in individuals with(More)
The increased incidence of infection and malignancy in elderly individuals has prompted many studies that demonstrate that the aging immune system is impaired. Most of these studies have focused on the impairment of acquired immunity provided by lymphocytes. While defects in acquired humoral and T-cell-mediated immunity may exist, increased susceptibility(More)
The basis of the biologic responses of C3H/HeJ mice to endotoxin administration in relation to the structural linkages in the lipid A portion of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were investigated. P. aeruginosa LPS was found to be immunogenic, mitogenic, and toxic, but not lethal, in C3H/HeJ mice. The observed(More)
CXCR6 is a chemokine receptor and the primary coreceptor in SIV infection. A single nucleotide polymorphism 1469G-->A, results in a nonconservative change in codon 3 (CXCR6-E3K) of the N-terminus of the coreceptor. To investigate the relation between the chemokine receptor CXCR6 genotype and progression to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and from PCP(More)