Richard B. Markham

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BACKGROUND Plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements are used for initiation of antiretroviral treatments. Whether the viral-load association with prognosis is similar in women and men is unknown. METHODS We studied 812 specimens from 650 injection-drug users (IDUs) participating in a continuous observational study of patients based in a community clinic. HIV-1 load(More)
Recombination between strains of HIV-1 only occurs in individuals with multiple infections, and the incidence of recombinant forms implies that multiple infection is common. Most direct studies indicate that multiple infection is rare. We determined the rate of multiple infection in a longitudinal study of 58 HIV-1 positive participants from The Women's(More)
The characteristics of sequential human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from 12 seroconverters among injection drug users selected for either rapid or slow disease progression were evaluated. All 6 patients who developed AIDS within 5 years were initially infected with syncytium-inducing (SI) variants or showed a transition from(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia complex is a common and devastating manifestation of the late phases of HIV infection. The pathogenesis of dementia complex is poorly understood and effective treatments have not been developed, in part because of the lack of an appropriate animal model. Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid(More)
Evolution of HIV-1 env sequences was studied in 15 seroconverting injection drug users selected for differences in the extent of CD4 T cell decline. The rates of increase of either sequence diversity at a given visit or divergence from the first seropositive visit were both higher in progressors than in nonprogressors. Viral evolution in individuals with(More)
Because both HIV-1 virions and HIV-infected cells are present in the semen and cervical mucus of infected individuals, HIV-1 prevention strategies must consider both cell-free and cell-associated virus. Antibodies that target HIV-1 virions have been shown to prevent vaginal transmission of cell-free virus in macaques, but since cell-associated transmission(More)
The basis of the biologic responses of C3H/HeJ mice to endotoxin administration in relation to the structural linkages in the lipid A portion of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were investigated. P. aeruginosa LPS was found to be immunogenic, mitogenic, and toxic, but not lethal, in C3H/HeJ mice. The observed(More)
Research on the exoerythrocytic (EE) stages of human malaria parasites has been hindered because of the lack of an easily available suitable animal model. We report here an approach to produce mature EE-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites by using severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with transplanted human hepatocytes. Transplantation of human(More)
CXCR6 is a chemokine receptor and the primary coreceptor in SIV infection. A single nucleotide polymorphism 1469G-->A, results in a nonconservative change in codon 3 (CXCR6-E3K) of the N-terminus of the coreceptor. To investigate the relation between the chemokine receptor CXCR6 genotype and progression to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and from PCP(More)
HIV-1 infection of human PBMC has been shown to elicit secretion of several different cytokines. TNF-alpha secretion induced by this virus has been of particular interest because it has been associated with the development of HIV-1 dementia and because TNF-alpha increases viral replication by enhancing NF-kappaB interaction with the viral promoter, the(More)