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The acylation and deacylation stages of the hydrolysis of N -acetyl-Phe-Gly methyl thionoester catalysed by papain and actinidin were investigated by stopped-flow spectral analysis. Differences in the forms of pH-dependence of the steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic parameters support the hypothesis that, whereas for papain, in accord with the… (More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis has been used extensively as an animal model of T cell mediated autoimmunity. A down-regulatory pathway through which encephalitogenic CD4Th1 cells are killed by CD8 regulatory T cells (Treg) has recently been proposed. With the CD8Treg cells being primed by dendritic cells, regulation of recovery may be occuring… (More)
The use of simulation to investigate biological domains will inevitably lead to the need to extend existing simulations as new areas of these domains become more fully understood. Such simulation extensions can entail the incorporation of additional cell types, molecules or molecular pathways, all of which can exert a profound influence on the simulation… (More)
Investigation of a biological domain through simulation can naturally lead to the desire to extend the simulation as new areas of the domain are explored. Such extension may entail the incorporation of additional cell types, molecules or entire molecular pathways. The addition of these extensions can have a profound influence on simulation behaviour, and… (More)
Predicting efficacy and optimal drug delivery strategies for small molecule and biological therapeutics is challenging due to the complex interactions between diverse cell types in different tissues that determine disease outcome. Here we present a new methodology to simulate inflammatory disease manifestation and test potential intervention strategies in… (More)
The image for Fig 4C is incorrect. Please see the complete, corrected Fig 4 here. Copyright: © 2015 Read et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
An experimentally determined pK(a) change of +2.50 units has been reported for the B13 Glu residue in a dimeric B9 Ser --> Asp insulin mutant relative to the native dimer. Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatics-based pK(a) calculations were performed to probe the effect of the B9 Ser --> Asp and B10 His --> Asp mutations on aggregation and the ionization… (More)