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The rate hypothesis of psychoactive drug action holds that the faster a drug reaches the brain and starts to act, the greater its reinforcing effects and abuse liability. A previous human study using a single cocaine dose confirmed the rate hypothesis for subjective responses, but found no rate effect on cardiovascular responses. We evaluated the rate(More)
BACKGROUND Cocaine treatment upregulates brain mu-opioid receptors (mOR) in animals. Human data regarding this phenomenon are limited. We previously used positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-carfentanil to show increased mOR binding in brain regions of 10 cocaine-dependent men after 1 and 28 days of abstinence. METHODS Regional brain mOR binding(More)
RATIONALE Cocaine users have increased regional brain mu-opioid receptor (mOR) binding which correlates with cocaine craving. The relationship of mOR binding to relapse is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate regional brain mOR binding as a predictor of relapse to cocaine use is the objective of the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen nontreatment-seeking,(More)
Two groups of men consumed two levels of protein (1.4 and 2.8 g/kg body weight) during a 40-day experimental period. Physical activity and the sweat rates were fairly high during the entire experimental phase. Urinary nitrogen excretions remained fairly constant for both groups during the training and heavy physical activity periods. Nitrogen balances were(More)
iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most indebted to Dr. Xigen Li, my thesis chair, for his inspiration in completing this thesis, and his excellent guidance and constant support during the course of this research. Dr. Li's insightful advice proved invaluable in this study. I would also like to acknowledge and thank the members of the advisory committee, Dr. my thesis(More)
Propaganda has an extensive history of invisibly infiltrating society through influence and manipulation in order to satisfy the originator's intent. It has the potential long-term power to alter values, beliefs, behavior, and group norms by presenting a biased ideology and reinforcing this idea through repetition: over time discrediting all other(More)
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