Richard A. Zager

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Studies assessing mechanisms of proximal tubular cell (PTC) physiology and pathophysiology increasingly utilize cell culture systems to avoid the complexity of whole organ/whole animal experiments. However, no well-differentiated PTC line derived from adult human kidney currently exists. Therefore, the goal of this research was to establish such a line by(More)
Oxidative stress and inflammation are mediators in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications, and they are inseparably linked as each begets and amplifies the other. CKD-associated oxidative stress is due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and diminished antioxidant capacity. The latter is(More)
To assess the incidence, risk factors, and course of acute renal failure (ARF) following bone marrow transplantation (BMT), a retrospective analysis of 272 patients receiving transplants at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center during 1986 was undertaken. The patients were divided into three groups: group 1, hemodialysis requiring ARF; group 2, mild(More)
BACKGROUND Carbon dioxide absorbents degrade sevoflurane, particularly at low gas flow rates, to fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl ether (compound A). Compound A causes renal proximal tubular injury in rats but has had no effect on blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or creatinine concentrations in patients. This investigation compared the effects of(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple parenteral iron (Fe) formulations exist for administration to patients with end-stage renal disease. Although there are concerns regarding their potential toxicities, no direct in vitro comparisons of these agents exist. Thus, the present study contrasted pro-oxidant and cytotoxic potentials of four available Fe preparations: Fe dextran(More)
UNLABELLED Recent evidence indicates that a "sphingomyelin signaling pathway" exists: in response to heterogeneous influences, sphingomyelin is hydrolyzed, liberating ceramide, and subsequently its sphingoid base, sphingosine. Ceramide and sphingosine can influence diverse cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, protein(More)
The goal of this study was to determine whether sphingosine and ceramide, second messengers derived from sphingolipid breakdown, alter kidney proximal tubular cell viability and their adaptive responses to further damage. Adult human kidney proximal tubular (HK-2) cells were cultured for 0-20 hr in the presence or absence of sphingosine, sphingosine(More)
Some metazoans have evolved the capacity to survive severe oxygen deprivation. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, exposed to anoxia (0 kPa, 0% O(2)) enters into a recoverable state of suspended animation during all stages of the life cycle. That is, all microscopically observable movement ceases including cell division, developmental progression,(More)
The term 'endotoxin tolerance' defines a state in which prior endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) exposure induces resistance to subsequent LPS attack. However, its characteristics within kidney have not been well defined. Hence, this study tested the impact of LPS 'preconditioning' (LPS-PC; 18 or 72 h earlier) on: (i) selected renal inflammatory mediators(More)