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This study assessed whether endothelin-1 (ET-1) helps mediate postischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The impact(s) of potent ETA or ETB receptor-specific antagonists (Atrasentan and BQ-788, respectively) on disease progression were assessed 24 h or 2 weeks following 30 min of unilateral ischemia in CD-1 mice.(More)
Oxidative stress and inflammation are mediators in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications, and they are inseparably linked as each begets and amplifies the other. CKD-associated oxidative stress is due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and diminished antioxidant capacity. The latter is(More)
Some metazoans have evolved the capacity to survive severe oxygen deprivation. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, exposed to anoxia (0 kPa, 0% O(2)) enters into a recoverable state of suspended animation during all stages of the life cycle. That is, all microscopically observable movement ceases including cell division, developmental progression,(More)
Studies of experimental acute kidney injury (AKI) are critically dependent on having precise methods for assessing the extent of tubular cell death. However, the most widely used techniques either provide indirect assessments (e.g., BUN, creatinine), suffer from the need for semi-quantitative grading (renal histology), or reflect the status of residual(More)
The mevalonate pathway produces many critical substances in cells, including sterols essential for membrane structure and isoprenoids vital to the function of many membrane proteins. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is a rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Because cholesterol is a product of this pathway, HMG-CoA(More)
Acute renal failure (ARF) induces tubular hyperresponsiveness to TLR4 ligands, culminating in exaggerated renal cytokine/chemokine production. However, the fate of TLR4 protein during acute tubular injury remains unknown. The study sought new insights into this issue. Male CD-1 mice were subjected to 1) unilateral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), 2) cisplatin(More)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related protein (PTHrP) is widely expressed in normal fetal and adult tissues and regulates growth and differentiation in a number of organ systems. Although various renal cell types produce PTHrP, and PTHrP expression in rat proximal renal tubules is upregulated in response to ischemic injury in vivo, the role of PTHrP in the(More)
BACKGROUND As a consequence of acute kidney injury (AKI), proximal tubular cells hyperrespond to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) by exaggerated renal Tnf-α Production. This LPS hyperresponsiveness is transcriptionally mediated. The epigenetic pathways that control these responses are unknown. METHODS/FINDINGS We applied multiplex chromatin(More)
Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a hepatic stress protein with protease inhibitor activity. Recent evidence indicates that ischemic or toxic injury can evoke selective changes within kidney that resemble a hepatic phenotype. Hence, we tested the following: i) Does acute kidney injury (AKI) up-regulate the normally renal silent AAT gene? ii) Does rapid urinary(More)
7 patients with atheroembolic renal disease were found to have hypocomplementaemia. Evidence obtained in an experimental model of atheroembolic disease shows that the hypocomplementaemia is the result of complement activation by the atheromatous material in vivo. In addition to hypocomplementaemia, 6 patients had thrombocytopenia and 5 had eosinophilia.(More)