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Epistasis for fitness means that the selective effect of a mutation is conditional on the genetic background in which it appears. Although epistasis is widely observed in nature, our understanding of its consequences for evolution by natural selection remains incomplete. In particular, much attention focuses only on its influence on the instantaneous rate(More)
We introduce Embodied Evolution (EE) as a new methodology for evolutionary robotics (ER). EE uses a population of physical robots that autonomously reproduce with one another while situated in their task environment. This constitutes a fully distributed evolutionary algorithm embodied in physical robots. Several issues identified by researchers in the(More)
Recombination in the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is supposed to enable the component characteristics from two parents to be extracted and then reassembled in different combinations – hopefully producing an offspring that has the good characteristics of both parents. However, this can only work if it is possible to identify which parts of each parent should be(More)
Herbert A. Simon's characterization of modularity in dynamical systems describes subsystems as having dynamics that are approximately independent of those of other subsystems (in the short term). This fits with the general intuition that modules must, by definition, be approximately independent. In the evolution of complex systems, such modularity may(More)
One common characterization of how simple hill-climbing optimization methods can fail is that they become trapped in local op-tima-a state where no small modiication of the current best solution will produce a solution that is better. This measure of`better' depends on the performance of the solution with respect to the single objective b e-ing optimized.(More)
We introduce Embodied Evolution (EE) as a methodology for the automatic design of robotic controllers. EE is an evolutionary robotics (ER) technique that avoids the pitfalls of the simulate-and-transfer method, allows the speed-up of evaluation time by utilizing parallelism, and is particularly suited to future work on multi-agent behaviors. In EE, an(More)