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The Building-Block Hypothesis appeals to the notion of problem decomposition and the assembly of solutions from sub-solutions. Accordingly, there have been many varieties of GA test problems with a structure based on building-blocks. Many of these problems use deceptive fitness functions to model interdependency between the bits within a block. However,(More)
We introduce Embodied Evolution (EE) as a new methodology for evolutionary robotics (ER). EE uses a population of physical robots that autonomously reproduce with one another while situated in their task environment. This constitutes a fully distributed evolutionary algorithm embodied in physical robots. Several issues identified by researchers in the(More)
Herbert A. Simon's characterization of modularity in dynamical systems describes subsystems as having dynamics that are approximately independent of those of other subsystems (in the short term). This fits with the general intuition that modules must, by definition, be approximately independent. In the evolution of complex systems, such modularity may(More)
One of the most controversial yet enduring hypotheses about what genetic algorithms (GAs) are good for concerns the idea that GAs process building-blocks. More specifically, it has been suggested that crossover in GAs can assemble short low-order schemata of above average fitness (building blocks) to create higher-order higher-fitness schemata. However,(More)
This paper gives additional data for experiments presented in previous work on hierarchically consistent test problems. The experiments utilize Hierarchical-if-and-only-if (H-IFF), the basic example of a hierarchically consistent building-block problem, and several variants of H-IFF designed to enable the difficulty of the function to be 'tuned'. We review(More)
One common characterization of how simple hill-climbing optimization methods can fail is that they become trapped in local op-tima-a state where no small modiication of the current best solution will produce a solution that is better. This measure of`better' depends on the performance of the solution with respect to the single objective b e-ing optimized.(More)