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Seasonal hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico has been linked to increased nitrogen fluxes from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Basins, though recent evidence shows that phosphorus also influences productivity in the Gulf. We developed a spatially explicit and structurally detailed SPARROW water-quality model that reveals important differences in(More)
Data are summarized from 152 single-subject analyses of the reinforcing functions of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Individuals with developmental disabilities referred for assessment and/or treatment over an 11-year period were exposed to a series of conditions in which the effects of antecedent and consequent events on SIB were examined systematically by(More)
Neurotoxicity from accumulation of misfolded/mutant proteins is thought to drive pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases. Since decreasing levels of proteins responsible for such accumulations is likely to ameliorate disease, a therapeutic strategy has been developed to downregulate almost any gene in the CNS. Modified antisense oligonucleotides,(More)
Pathogenic bacteria possess adhesion protein complexes that play essential roles in targeting host cells and in propagating infection. Although each family of adhesion proteins is generally associated with a specific human disease, the Dr family from Escherichia coli is a notable exception, as its members are associated with both diarrheal and urinary tract(More)
Knowledge of headwater influences on the water-quality and flow conditions of downstream waters is essential to water-resource management at all governmental levels; this includes recent court decisions on the jurisdiction of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) over upland areas that contribute to larger downstream water bodies. We review current watershed(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to investigate whether the preoperative platelet-lymphocyte (P/L) ratio represents a significant prognostic index in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS A total of 110 patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma over a 10-year period were identified from a(More)
Previous studies involving platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) have been based on the premise that a single cell-surface receptor binds all three isoforms of PDGF (AA, BB, and AB). It is now shown that two populations of PDGF receptor exist and can be distinguished by their ligand binding specificity. The B receptor binds only the BB dimer, whereas the(More)
Determining natural background concentrations of nutrients in watersheds in the developed world has been hampered by a lack of pristine sampling sites covering a range of climatic conditions and basin sizes. Using data from 63 minimally impacted U.S. Geological Survey reference basins, we developed empirical models of the background yield of total nitrogen(More)
Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Although this report is in the public domain, permission must be secured from the individual copyright owners to reproduce any copyrighted materials contained within this report. of the U. S. Geological Survey(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify characteristics of beneficiaries of health care over which relative weights should be derived and to estimate relative weights to be attached to health gains according to characteristics of recipients of these gains (relativities study); and to assess the feasibility of estimating a willingness-to-pay (WTP)-based value of a(More)