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T remendous strides have been made in treating HIV-1 infection in industrialized countries. Combination therapy with antiretroviral (ARV) drugs suppresses virus replication, delays disease progression, and reduces mortality. In industrialized settings, plasma viral load assays are used in combination with CD4 cell counts to determine when to initiate(More)
Most HIV surveillance has been performed through serologic surveys in relatively stable, accessible populations. Similar surveillance, with or without counseling and testing, in populations that are hard-to-reach, presents logistical challenges, including the selection of laboratory testing strategy and algorithm. The advent of rapid serologic assays for(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA testing is the gold standard for monitoring antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. However, equipment and reagent costs preclude widespread use of the assay in resource-limited settings. The Perkin-Elmer Ultrasensitive p24 assay and the Cavidi Exavir Load assay both offer potentially simpler, less costly(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize HIV-1 phenotypic resistance patterns and genotypic mutations among patients taking antiretroviral medications in Uganda. METHODS We reviewed charts and retrieved archived plasma specimens from patients at an AIDS specialty center in Uganda where antiretroviral therapy has been used since 1996. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance(More)
To assess the impact of antiretroviral resistance on perinatal transmission prevention efforts, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic resistance testing was done for 220 HIV-1-infected, zidovudine (AZT)-exposed pregnant women and 24 of their infected infants. The women were prospectively enrolled in 4 US cities in 1991-1997. Phylogenetic and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from 50 plasma specimens were analyzed for phenotypic susceptibility to licensed reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors by the Antivirogram and PhenoSense HIV assays. Twenty of these specimens were from recently seroconverted drug-naïve persons, and 30 were from patients who were the(More)
We evaluated the performance of three HIV-1 RNA quantitation methods (Amplicor HIV-1 MONITOR-1.0, NASBA, and Quantiplex HIV RNA 2.0 [branched DNA (bDNA)]) using plasma specimens (N = 60) from individuals from Asia and Africa infected with one of three HIV-1 subtypes (A, Thai B [B'] or E; N = 20 each). Our results demonstrate that of the 20 subtype A(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 infection is characterized by slower disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome than results from HIV-1 infection. To better understand the biological factors underlying the different natural histories of infection with these 2 retroviruses, we examined the relationship between HIV RNA and DNA levels(More)
To assess the prevalence of mutations associated with decreased antiretroviral drug susceptibility, specimens were tested from persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during 1993-1998. Subjects were drug naive and were attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in 6 US cities. All were enrolled consecutively and had tested negative for(More)
To describe prevalence of antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistant HIV-1 strains among patients with a history of earlier treatment with ARV drugs in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, we determined mutations that confer HIV-1 ARV drug resistance by sequencing the viral reverse-transcriptase and protease genes derived from plasma viral RNA of 68 individuals consecutively(More)